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BSCI201 Exam 1 Notes.docx - EXAM 1 MATERIAL August 30, 2021...

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EXAM 1 MATERIALAugust 30, 2021Intro, Anatomy and Physiology, Fundamental Concepts, Levels of Structural OrganizationSpinal cord and brain are very importantAnatomyoThe study of the parts of the body and how they relate to each otheroSubdivisionsGross or macroscopic anatomy – the study of large parts visible to the naked eyeRegional anatomy – all of the structures in a particular regionSystemic anatomy – structure of the body are studied by the systemsWhat we are doingMicroscopic anatomy – very small structures that cannot be viewed with the naked eyeStructures are viewed with the aid of a microscopeoCytology – cells viewed by the aid of microscopeoHistology- tissues viewed by the aid of microscopeDevelopmental anatomy – structural changes (such as growth) that occur in the body throughout the lifespanAreas are named after muscle or bones in that areaOrientational and directional termsoSuperior (cranial)Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; aboveEX: the head is superior to the abdomenoInferior (caudal)Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; belowEX: The navel is inferior to the chinoVentral (anterior)Toward or at the front of the body; in front ofEX: the breastbone is anterior to the spineoDorsal (posterior)Toward or at the back of the body; behindEX: the heart is posterior to the breastboneoMedialToward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side ofEX: the heart is medial to the armoLateralAway from the midline of the body; on the outer side ofEX: the arms are lateral to the chestoIntermediateBetween a more medial and a more lateral structureEX: the collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulderoProximalCloser to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunkEX: the elbow is proximal to the wristoDistalFarther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunkEX: the knee is distal to the thighoSuperficial (external)Toward or at the body surfaceEX: the skin is superficial to the skeletal musclesoDeep (internal)Away from the body surface; more internalEX: the lungs are deep to the skin3 Body planes and sectionsoFrontal (coronal) planeA vertical cut that divides the body in anterior and posterior partsoSagittal plane
A vertical cut that divides the body into right and left partsMidsagittal planeA sagittal cut exactly on the midline that divides the body into EQUAL right and lefts partsParasagittal planeA sagittal cut not on the midline that divides the body into UNEQUAL right and left partsoTransverse or cross-sectional planeA horizontal cut that divides the body into superior and inferior partsThe human body: an orientationoThe body in anatomical positionBody erectFeet slightly apartPalms face forwardThumbs point away from the bodyBody cavitieso

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Term
Fall
Professor
Sarah Lombardi
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