Final Study Guide

Final Study Guide - CLIMATE CHANGE OBJECTIVES 1) Know what...

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CLIMATE CHANGE OBJECTIVES 1) Know what happens to the amount of radiation emitted and the wavelength of maximum output from a body as its temperature increases or decreases. Intensity over Amount is proportional to T^4 Tmax = 2900/T Wavelength decreases when temperature increases 2) What part of the EMR spectrum is the maximum output of the Sun, and what part of the EMR spectrum is the maximum output of the Earth? Sun – Visible light/radiation Earth – Thermal Infared 3) What aspect of the Earth’s energy balance is least understood? Clouds 4) What is the principle reason that the surface of Venus is so much hotter than the surface of Earth? Greenhouse Effect 5) What is the “faint young sun” paradox, and what mechanism might resolve this paradox? The Planet maintaining a habitable temperature despite over time changes in the luminosity of the sun. - Removal of CO2 slowly increased, Hydrolysis
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6) What are the six major climate change triggers, and which one of these are we most concerned about at present? - Variations in solar output - Atmospheric composition change (CO2 and other volcanic gasses) - Milankovich cycles - Elevation and distribution of continents - Ocean interactions - Biological and physical feedback mechanisms 7) 9iKnow what the principal greenhouse and icehouse gasses are. Know how these gasses work on the climate system to heat or cool the earth. Greenhouse gasses – prevent loss of radiant heat (infared) from earth. Contribute to warming of earth. -Carbon dioxide -Water vapor -Methane -Chlorofluorocarbons -Nitrous Oxide Icehouse gasses – Cooling effect by reflection of incoming solar radiation(albedo) -Water vapor -Aerosols (sulfate) -Particulate matter -Nitrous Oxide 8) Be able to describe the subtle differences between Global Warming and the greenhouse effect. - Global warming is factual measurement, average global temperature - Greenhouse effect is the proposed mechanism for global warming 9) What proof is there that carbon dioxide has caused climate change in the past, and what are the limitations to this causal connection? Ice core records Correlation doesn’t automatically mean causation 10) Be able to fully describe the differences between the environmental issues known as ozone depletion and greenhouse effect/global warming. Maybe fill in blank? CFC’s and O3 are both greenhouse gasses, but they are not global warming.
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11) What are the present day positions of the Sun over the surface of the Earth for the solstices and equinoxes? - On the equinox the sun is directly over the equator - On the solstices it is above the tropic of cancer - The obliquity of the earth is 23.5% tilt 12) Know what to call the cycles of solar input variability caused by orbital parameters. Know the orbital parameters that cause these cycles, and the periodicity of each cycle.
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13) Changes in insolation cause the most significant climate change if it occurs during which season in the Northern Hemisphere? Summer
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Final Study Guide - CLIMATE CHANGE OBJECTIVES 1) Know what...

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