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Study Guide

Study Guide - OBJECTIVES FOR EARTHQUAKES 1 What was the...

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OBJECTIVES FOR EARTHQUAKES 1) What was the most destructive earthquake in history, and what was the first predicted earthquake in history? - Most destructive: 1556 Sheshi, China – 830,000 killed 1 st Predicted: 1975 Liaoning Province, China 2) What type of strain (brittle, ductile, or elastic) is most important in creating earthquakes? Elastic is most important, elastic rebound. 3) Where do most earthquakes occur in a specific/local sense, and what is the difference between the focus and the epicenter of an earthquake? Earthquakes occur along faults. Focus – The point where the strain is released (along a fault deep in earth interior) Epicenter – The point on surface above the focus. 4) Where do most earthquakes occur in a general/global sense? Most common along plate boundaries. 5) What are the four modes of generation for earthquakes? 1. Tectonic Earthquakes 2. Volcanic Earthquakes 3. Collapse Earthquake 4. Explosive Earthquakes. 6) What type of plate boundary produces earthquakes with the deepest foci? Convergent Boundaries. 7) Is there any place on Earth that is safe from earthquakes? No, they can happen anywhere. 8) What are energy waves released from an earthquake called, what are the two main types of these waves, the two divisions within each type, and what are the characteristics of each (which ones are fastest/slowest, go through liquids or don't, are or aren't trapped at the surface, are most and least destructive)?
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1) Body Waves – Travel the interior of the earth - P waves (fastest wave), can travel through solids and liquids, least destructive - S waves (slower than p), travel only through solids, more destructive than P wave 2) Surface Waves – Travel surface of the earth (both equally slowest) - Love wave, most destructive - Rayleigh wave, like ocean wave moves objects elliptically 9) What do you call the instrument used to record earthquakes, and what do you call the record this instrument produces? Seismometer/Seismograph Record is called seismograms 10) What are the two basic scales used to measure the strength of earthquakes, and why are two different scales needed (what does each record)? Richter Scale (Magnitude) Energy Mercalli Scale (Intensity) Perception of residents 11) Be able to describe how an earthquake's epicenter is located. 1) Use seismomentors to measure the difference between P-wave and S-wave arrival times. 2) Use known velocities of these waves to calculate the distance of the epicenter. 3) Use distance calculations from 3 stations to locate epicenter direction. 12) What characteristics of seismic waves allow us to determine the interior structure of the earth, and what is this structure? Reflection and refraction of seismic waves. S waves can’t go through liquids.
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Study Guide - OBJECTIVES FOR EARTHQUAKES 1 What was the...

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