American Politics Final Exam Study Guide

American Politics Final Exam Study Guide - American...

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American Politics Final Exam Study Guide Cloture – mechanism requiring sixty senators to cut off debate Court of Appeals - the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system. A court of appeals decides appeals from the district courts within its federal judicial circuit, and in some instances from other designated federal courts and administrative agencies. Writ of Certiorari – a request for the Supreme Court to order up records from a lower court to review the case Party-in-the-Electorate – the voters who consider themselves allied or associated with the party Trustees v. Delegates – a trustee is a role played by elected representatives who listen to constituents’ opinions and then use their best judgment to make final decisions while delegates is the role played by elected officials who vote the way their constituents would want them to regardless of their own opinions BCRA - Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 is United States federal law that amended the Federal Election Campaign Act, which regulates the financing of political campaigns. Its chief sponsors were Senators John McCain (R-AZ) and Russell Feingold (D-WI). The law became effective on 6 November 2002, and the new legal limits became effective on 1 January 2003. As noted in McConnell v. FEC, a United States Supreme Court ruling on the BCRA, the Act was designed to address two issues: The increased role of soft money in campaign financing, by prohibiting national political party committees from raising or spending any funds not subject to federal limits, even for state and local races or issue discussion; The proliferation of issue ads, by defining as "electioneering communications" broadcast ads that name a federal candidate within 30 days of a primary or caucus or 60 days of a general election, and prohibiting any such ad paid for by a corporation (including non-profit issue organizations such as Right to Life or the Environmental Defense Fund) or paid for by an unincorporated entity using any corporate or union funds Lobbying – the activites of a group or organization that seeks to influence legislation that will benefit his or her organization through political persuasion
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Public Opinion Poll – interviews or surveys with samples of citizens that are used to estimate the feelings and beliefs of the entire population Democracy v. Republic – a republic is a government rooted in the consent of the governed, more of an indirect democracy, while democracy is a system of government that gives power to the people, whether directly or through elected representatives
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