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Review of Related Literature and Studies This chapter presents the related literature and studies, foreign and local which provided the researcher the needed information and direction for the completion of the study. Foreign Literature Lynne Schrum, past president of the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), is an associate professor in the department of instructional technology at the University of Georgia. Her research, teachings, and writings focus on issues related to distance education, specifically online learning. Schrum also investigates the uses of technology in K-12 environments and identifies ways to support educators in the effort. Educators want students to learn. She said that It is certainly not enough to tell educators that they need to use the boxes and wires that have invaded their schools simply because they are expensive or because studentsneed to know how to use the latest widget. If it's clear that technological tools will help them achieve that goal, educators will use those tools. Technology lends itself to exploration. But before technology can be used effectively, exploration must be valued as important to both teaching and learning. In a technology-rich classroom, students might search the Web for information, analyze river water, chart the results, and record what they've learned on the computer. In such an environment, acquiring content changes from a static process to one of defining goals the learners wish to pursue. Students are active, rather than passive producing knowledge and presenting that knowledge in a variety of formats. In a technology-rich classroom, students don't "learn" technology. Technology merely provides the tools to be for authentic learning. It is a means, not an end. According to Benjamin Herold (2016) Technology is everywhere in education: Public schools in the United States now provide at least one computer for every five students. They spend more than $3 billion per year on digital content. Led by the federal government, the country is in the midst of a massive effort to make affordable high-speed Internet and free online teaching resources available to even the most rural and remote schools. And in 2015-16, for thefirst time, more state standardized tests for the elementary and middle grades will be administered via technology than by paper and pencil.There were seven (7) steps for adapting technology to the classroom by Sean Nank (2017) As the recession of 2008 becomes a not too distant memory, some schools are finding themselves better
funded. With this comes the acquisition of technology for schools and classrooms. The widespread introduction of technology can have amazing impacts on curricula, pedagogy, and student learning. But some schools have not experienced these results. The following are the seven aspects of adapting technology that will help you avoid lackluster results. Buy technology for teachers and students, Use the 10% rule (If you have $100,000 total to spendon technology, then spend $90,000 and set aside $10,000
for professional development and training to support teachers while implementing the technology.), Give teachers time, choose a platform and stick with it, technology for the sake of technology, students are not digital natives, lastly is assess with technology in a meaningful way. According to Kelsey Sheehy (2012) The proliferation of social media and technology has changed the way educators teach, how students learn, and the way teachers and students communicate. Bob Wise a former governor of West Virginia and president of the Alliance for Excellent Education, an advocacy organization, said that "You can't just slap a Netbook [computer] on top of a textbook and say, 'Great, now we have technology," Good teaching, especially the kind that involves working with evolving technologies, sometimes requires good advice. "The whole intention of Digital Learning Day is to really celebrate teachers and good instructional learning practices," says Sarah Hall, director of the Alliance's Center for Secondary School Digital Learning and Policy. It’s hard to determine whether technology in the classroom is helpful or harmful. Samantha Cleaver (2014) wrote an article about it. With a world of information at their fingertips nowadays, it seems like kids should be finding it easier than ever to succeed in school. However, as more classrooms invest in the latest technology, test scores remain the same, bringing its effectiveness into question. “Incorporating technology into the classroom requires a double innovation,” says Shelley Pasnik, director of the Center for Education and Technology. Educators who receive new technology must first learn how to use the equipment and then decide whether or not it supports the class objectives and curriculum. Despite the challenges, incorporating technology into education still has proven benefits, especially when it comes to personalized learning.
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Local Literature The Philippine Star created an article last 12th of July 2014 about how technology helps students study well. According to it more and more school use technology such as computers and the internet in their classroom and several improvements on students have seen and they are now getting better in education. These improvements are the following: Independence and information gathering, Critical thinking and reflection, Communication and collaboration, More engaging learning experience and Preparation for jobs later on. By connecting the Internet, students learn how to do their own research and with the large information that they access. Students are induced to learn to think critically. Through exchange of ideas and messages, students are able to collaborate with each other to test their understanding of lessons. Information today is more engaging to the mind and the senses because of its multimedia nature. Knowing allof these improvements and advantages. more and more schools are allowing not just desktop computers and laptops, but also tablet devices and smartphones in their classrooms. According to John Paul Espinosa (2016) Technological advances had greatly changed the education landscape in that teaching is no longer confined to the traditional face-to-face delivery of lessons. Now, via internet we can also learn not only in the classroom but outside the school. Through the convergence of modern and traditional methods, students are now able to experience the best of both worlds. They can learn from school and get additional information or lessons through the web and internet. A survey conducted by Pearson Foundation in the United States found that more than six in 10 college students and high school seniors agree that they study more efficiently by using tablets. A study conducted by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt inCalifornia also showed that students using iPads performed better in math compared to students using traditional textbooks. Another study at Oklahoma State University found that 75 percent of students said the use of gadgets enhanced their learning experience. Even though that the parents and some teacher fear that gadgets may distract students, surveys and studies have shown that these technological devices are a big help in learning. Today, more states administered tests for the elementary and high school through the internet, discarding the use of the traditional pen and paper.
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