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Final Exam Study Guide 1.anticline, syncline (p.15) Anticlines –arched rock folds (trap petroleum reserves) Synclines –trough rock folds 2.faults (p. 18) Normal/reverse faults are primarily vertical oNormal fault: hanging wall block moves down oReverse fault: hanging wall block moves up Strike-slip (lateral) faults have horizontal movement Overthrust and growth faults have a combination of both movements 3.graben, horst (p. 20) Grabens-blocks of rock between two faults that have SUNK relative to surrounding crust. Horsts-blocks of crust that have RISEN. 4.Types of rocks (sedimentary, metamorphic) p. 24 More interested in sedimentary; uncommon for oil to lie in igneous or metamorphic rocks. Eg. sandstone or shale. 5.Origin of Petroleum (p. 25) Organic theory- oil and gas comes from remains of microscopic plant and small animal organisms, which bonds with hydrocarbons Inorganic theory- oil formed in a chemical reaction of minerals with water deep beneath Earth’s surface6.The Chemistry of Hydrocarbons (p. 27) Hydrocarbons start forming at 150 degrees F (66 degrees Celcius) Oil window ends at about 300 degrees Fahrenheit (149 degrees Celsius) Gas window ends at about 500 degrees Fahrenheit (260 degrees Celsius). 7.Porosity, permeability (p. 27) Porosity-percent of pore space in a rock. To be commercially valuable, reservoir rock must have a porosity of 10% or more (10% must have pore space capable of containing petroleum). Oil is retrievable in 5%-30% porosity.