Exam 3 Review - Biology 3. Fall 07 Lecture outline for Test...

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Biology 3. Fall 07 Lecture outline for Test 2 General comments - You must remember the main characteristics of pro- and eukaryotes, and know the characteristics of the following kingdoms, Bacteria and Archaea, Protista, Plants and Fungi. Kingdoms Bacteria and Archaea (formerly grouped together in the kingdom Monera). Know what general features the two kingdoms have in common- prokaryotic, single celled, reproduce mostly by prokaryotic fission, but also do conjugation which is a type of sexual reprod. Know why prokaryotes are now classified in two kingdoms rather than one- you must know what are main differences between Bacteria and Archaea (Table 27.2). Bacteria - Three main cell shapes are recognised-coccus (spherical), bacillus (rod-shaped) and spiral. Cell wall of peptidoglycan (know Gram staining). Many are beneficial, but some are pathogens- they cause diseases in animals & plants. Bacteria can either be autotrophic (self-feeders- make their own food from CO2 and energy) or heterotrophic (need to have food- ie organic C compounds, provided to them) (Table 27.1). Photosynthetic bacteria (photoautotrophs), like present day cyanobacteria, used CO2 and energy from sunlight to make carbohydrate and O2, and enriched the atmosphere with O2, leading to the evolution of organisms with aerobic respiration. Most bacteria are chemoheterotrophs- they’re beneficial to the environment, causing decomposition of organic material and recycling of nutrients. Archaea can live in anaerobic environments, with high methane, high temp, high salt etc. Kingdom Protista : Know about the Theory of Endosymbiosis- what it is and what the evidence for it is. Know about the features of mitochondria and chloroplasts which are similar to features of present-day free living prokaryotes. General features of Protists -All protists are eukaryotic, and many are unicellular. Protists can be autotrophic or heterotrophic (absorptive or ingestive). They are the most diverse of all kingdoms. Know eg from lecture: Parasitic ones-Trichomonas,
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course POL 1133 taught by Professor Esparza during the Spring '08 term at The University of Texas at San Antonio- San Antonio.

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Exam 3 Review - Biology 3. Fall 07 Lecture outline for Test...

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