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Lecture Notes Exam 1 - Anthropology Exam 1 Lecture...

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Anthropology Exam 1 Lecture Notes
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1/17/08 (Chapter 1) Anthropologists view many aspects of cultures; biological, social, cultural, linguistic Small, non-western societies usually studied due to contrast with western culture, easier to be more detailed in observations, Hx anthropology. Cultural Anthropology o study of society and culture (largest sub-discipline) o Ethnography-account of a community or culture via participation- observation o Analyze and compare ethnographic studies o Synthetic and generalizing Archeology o Reconstructs/interprets human culture/societies via material remains. o Historical archeology, living people, ethnoarcheology, experimental Physical Anthropology: o Studies human; genetics, growth and development, physical plasticity and adaptation, primatology, and evolution (paleo-anthropology), Linguistic Anthropology Study human communication and language in social context, not as abstract code or grammatical system o Universal features of language, evolution of capacity for language, relation between language of the brain, reconstruction of ancient languages, study of language change, relation between language and thought Adaptation o Studies cultural, genetic, long-term and short term physiological adaptations Anthropology is a science theories and facts open to revision based on evidence
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1/17/08 Week 1, Class 2: Kottak, Chapter 1 -The object of anthropology and its “holistic” approach -The whole of humanity -We also study human beings in multiple ways -Anthropology is inherently comparative -Why is the study of small-scale, non-Western societies particularly attractive to anthropologists? -The subdisciplines of anthropology -What are they? -Why did the discipline develop in this way? -Cultural anthropology -Two main activities: -Ethnography -Ethnology -Archaeology (“archaeological anthropology”) -Reconstructs, describes, and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains -Physical or biological anthropology -Studies human biological diversity -Five special interests -Linguistic anthropology -Studies language in its social and cultural context -Some linguistic anthropologists do more general and universal work -Not everyone still believes in keeping the four subdisciplines together -Anthropology and other academic fields -Human adaptability—the theme of the text -What are the four means of human adaptation? What are some examples? -How does culture shape the human body?
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-Science 1/22/08 Week 2, Class 1: Kottak, Chapter 2 -Applied anthropology: “the application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems” (23) -Political history of applied anthropology -Some applied anthropologists still work for powerful parties -Today, many applied anthropologists have a different political perspective -Helping the “local”—the powerless, the different—to survive or thrive -Helping others to help local peoples, or cultural and ethnic minorities -Different kinds of applied cultural anthropology -Medical anthropology
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