Chapter 19Drifting Toward Disunion1854-1861The Kansas Territory erupted in violence in 1855 between the proslavery and antislavery factions. In 1857, the Supreme Court's Dred Scottdecision permitted slavery in all Western territories, invalidating the Missouri Compromise of 1820.Stowe and Helper: Literary IncendiariesHarriet Beecher Stowe, who was white, published Uncle Tom's Cabinin 1852as an attempt to show the North the horrors of slavery. The novel was published abroad, including France and Britain. It helped to start the Civil War and for the North to win it.Hinton R. Helper, a non-aristocrat from North Carolina, wrote The Impending Crisis of the Southin 1857. He hated both blacks and slavery, and he attempted to use statistics to prove that the non-slaveholding whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery.The North-South Contest for KansasMost of the people who came to Kansas were just westward-moving pioneers. The New England Emigrant Aid Company, a group of abolitionists, paid some people to move to Kansas to make it a free state. (The Kansas and Nebraska territories had popular sovereignty in choosing slavery, according to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Nebraska was sofar north that its future as a free state was never in question.)In 1855when Kansas was having its legislature elections, many pro-slavery people came from Missouri to vote. They sought to elect pro-slavery officials. The slavery supporters won the elections and set up their own government at Shawnee Mission. The abolitionists then set up their own government in Topeka, giving the Kansas territory two governments.In 1856, the civil war in Kansas started when a group of pro-slavery riders burned down part of the abolitionist's town of Lawrence.Kansas in ConvulsionJohn Brown:fanatical abolitionist who, in May of 1856, hacked to death 5 presumed pro-slavery men at Pottawatomie Creekin response to the pro-slavery events in Lawrence.Civil war flared up in Kansas in 1856, and continued until it merged with the nation's Civil War of 1861-1865.In 1857, Kansas had enough people to apply for statehood. Its citizens were going to vote again on whether or not to have slavery in the stateof Kansas. To keep the abolitionists from creating a free state, the pro-
slavery politicians created the Lecompton Constitution. The document stated that the people were not allowed to vote for or against the constitution as a whole, rather, they could vote on whether the constitution would be "with slavery" or "without slavery." If slavery was voted against, then one of the provisions in the constitution would protect those who already owned slaves in Kansas. Many abolitionists boycotted voting,so the constitution was approved to include slavery.James Buchanan, a Democrat, succeeded Pierce as the President of the United States in the election of 1856. He had a strong southern influence and approved of the Lecompton Constitution. Senator Stephen Douglaswas strongly opposed to the document and he campaigned against it.