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Cognition Notes - Development of cognitive psychology...

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Development of cognitive psychology - psychologists such as George Miller and Ulric Neisser were among the first cognitive psychologists. Their use of computer programs that mimic cognitive processes is called computer simulation Cognition - processes whereby we acquire and use knowledge. The building blocks of thought - the basic building blocks of thought are language, images, and concepts. When we think about an object or a person, we think in terms of verbal statements, an image, or a concept consisting of certain attributes of the object or person Language - a flexible system of communication that uses sounds, rules, gestures, or symbols to convey information. Spoken language is based on phonemes which group together to form morphemes. When we wish to communicate an idea, we start with a thought, then choose words and phrases that will express the idea, and produce the speech sounds of those words and phrases. To understand speech, the task is reversed. Sentences have both a surface structure and a deep structure. The rules that determine the meaning and form of words and sentences are called grammar. Semantics and syntax are the two major components of grammar. Phonemes - the basic sounds that make up any language Morphemes - The smallest meaningful units of speech, such as simple words, prefixes, and suffixes Surface structure - the particular words and phrases used to make up a sentence Deep structure - the underlying meaning of a sentence Grammar - the language rules that determine how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate meaning within a language Semantics - the criteria for assigning meaning to the morphemes in a language Syntax - the rules for arranging words into grammatical sentences Image - a mental representation of a sensory experience. Using images and manipulating them help us think about and solve problems. Images also give us the power of visualization. Concept - a mental category for classifying objects, people, or experience based on their common features. Concepts help us think more efficiently about things and to categorize new experiences. Some concepts are “fuzzy,” lacking clear-cut boundaries. Therefore, we often use prototypes. George Lakoff has extended the prototype model by observing that most of our concepts fit together to form idealized cognitive models (ICMs), which are our theories of events as we typically expect to find them.
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