Chem1301Series1 - CHEMISTRY 1301. SERIES 1. ATOMIC THEORY...

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Unformatted text preview: CHEMISTRY 1301. SERIES 1. ATOMIC THEORY 1301.07 TR Fall 2007 Dr. Roberto Ma. Gregorius Which of the following definitions is stated incorrectly or incompletely? (a) The Law of Conservation of Mass states that the mass of the reactants will always equal the mass of the products. (b) The Law of Definite Composition states that a compound will always decompose to the same set of small whole numbered ratio of elements. (c) The Law of Multiple Proportions states that elements can combine in different ratios but that these ratios will always be of small whole numbers and that a specific ratio set will always make the same compound. Which of the following isfare the necessary requirement(s) in order to conceive of matter as being particulate? i. The Law of Consenation of Mass ii. The Law of Definite Composition iii. The Law of Multiple Proportions (a) ionly (b) iand ii (c) iand iii ((1) ii and iii Which of the following constitutes a good explanation of why atomic emission spectra are always of one particular set and dependent on the type of atom? (3.) Since the Schrodinger Model of the atom defines the energies that an atom may have, and since the Planck Equation relates energy to wavelength, then an atom with a particular energy can only have one particular wavelength. (b) Since the Planck Equation defines that wavelength is a function of frequency and electrons vibrate at only one particular set of frequencies per atom, then the emissions from an atom are also of one particular set. {cl Since the emission spectrum of an atom is dependent on electron decay and the electron orbitals are quantized, then the frequencies emitted is limited to the available orbitals and the energy differences of those orbitals. d) Since electron excitation and electron emission are the same in energies, the fact that electron excitation is limited to a particular set also limits the electron emission set. 4. Which of the folloWing statements concerning the three dimensional representation of the quantum number values is the least accurate? (a) The principal quantum number describes the total, oven—all energy of the electron. The higher the principal quantum number, the greater the distance of that electron from the nucleus. (b) The angular momentum quantum number describes the resulting shape of the wave-— function (probability map) for that particular electron. Different quantum numbers describe different solutions to the Schrodinger Equations and different probability distributions in three—dimensional space. (c) The magnetic quantum number describes the relative orientations available to the wave— function described in “b” above. Each magnetic quantum number describes a specific orientation of the resultant wave—function in three—dimensional space. (d) The spin quantum number describes the orientation of the electron’s magnetic moment to an external magnetic field. The magnetic moment can either be oriented with or against the magnetic field. 5. Which of the following statements concerning the m; for an electron with an I = 0 is true? (a) The only possible m; in this case is zero because an I of zero suggests that the wave function is symmetric in all directions and therefore does not have an orientation function. (b) There must be three possible ml, in this case, representing the three ordinal directions in a three—dimensional space. (c) There is no causal relationship between m; and l. Thus the m; can not be predicted based on the information given. (d) While there is no relationship between mg and I, it can be said that the number of possible m; values must be odd numbered since the possible choices must be centered on zero with an equal number of positive and negative choices. 6. Which of the following quantum numbers properly describes the outermost electron in its ground state within the designated atom in the choice given? (a) Hzn=l (b) Hezn=2,l=0 (c) Li:n=2,l=0,m1=0,ms=+l/2 (d) B:n=2,l=0,m1=0,m5=+1/2 .—._.——_ . 7. An electron with an electronic configuration designation of 2p3 must have which of the following quantum numbers? (a) n=0,l=0 ®)n=2J=3 (c) n=3,l=2 (d) n=2,l=1 8. Which of the following electronic configurations improperly describes the outermost electron in its ground state within the designated atom in the choice given? (a) Mg: 132 252 2p6 352 (b) Ga: 152 252 2196 3:2 3p6 452 4d” 4P1 (c) S: 152 252 2196 352 3p4 (d) Ca: 152 252 2;? 352 3p6 452 9. Which of the following statements best explains why we can expect atomic sizes to have the stated trend as we go from left to right along a periodic table row? (3.) Since the number of electrons increase as we go from left to right along a periodic table row, this increase in number of electrons increases the distance of the electrons from the nucleus since electrons repel each other. Thus the atom increases in size as we go from left to right along the periodic table. (b) Since the number of electrons increase as we go from left to right along a periodic table row, this increase in number of electrons decreases the distance of the electrons from the nucleus since electrons are attracted to the protons in the nucleus. More electrons mean more attraction and a decrease in the most probable distance of the electron from the nucleus. Thus the atom decreases in size as we go from left to right along the periodic table. (c) Since both the number of electrons and protons increase as we go from left to right along the periodic table, this increase in number of particles has a consequent increase need for available space. Thus, the size of the atom increases with increasing number of particles and increases as we go from left to right along the periodic table. (d) Since both the number of electrons and protons increase as we go from left to right along the periodic table _—without a consequent increase in the principal quantum number— then the result is a greater attraction between the protons and electrons rather than a greater repulsion of electrons. This results in a general decrease in the most probable distance of the electron from the nucleus. Thus, the atom decreases in size as we go from left to right along the periodic table. 10. Which of the following statements concerning ionic size relationship to the parent atom is false? (a) We should expect that the cationic form of an atom is smaller than the original atom since a whole principal quantum number level of electrons is usually lost in the formation of a cation and this results in the shell of the outermost electron being at a lower principal quantum number and consequently nearer to the nucleus. (b) We should expect that the anionic form of an atom is larger than the original atom since the required addition of electrons in order to form an anion results in electrons being added to a principal quantum level that is higher than that of the parent atom and resulting in an anion which has an outermost shell that is farther from the nucleus than that of the parent atom. (c) We should expect that when comparing isoelectronic cations and anions that the cation or anion with the highest atomic number will be the smallest in radius. This is because the cations and anion, being isoelectronic, should have their outermost electron on the same principal quantum level. but the highest atomic numbered cation or anion will have the most protons and consequently attract the shell inward and make the cation or anion the smallest. 11. Which of the following correlation of a periodic trend to the Schrodinger Model of the atom is false? (a) Atoms increase in size as we go from tOp to bottom along a column of the periodic table because each row along a column represents a higher principal quantum number which in turn represents a longer distance of the most probable location of the electron within an orbital. (b) Atomsincrease decrease in ionization potential as we go from top to bottom of a column of the periodic table because the energy of the most energetic electron gets higher as we encounter atoms going down a column. This means that these atoms require less and less energy to excite out of the atom. (c) Ions are expected to be the preferential form of an atom because the formation of cations or anions depends on lowering the quantum energy state of the atom and consequently make them more stable. 12. Which of the following series of atoms is ordered correctly with regard to ionization potential? (a) Na> Mg > Si w)N>O>F ®)O>S>P M)C>N>P 13. Which of the following series of atoms and ions is ordered correctly with regard to atomic and ionic sizes? @)C>B>Li (b) Cl‘> Mg2+ >, Na+ (c) Al3+ > Mg > Li (d) F”> F > Ll+ 14. Which of the following statements regarding ionization potential is true? (a) Ionization potential is the ability of an atom to attract a free electron to itself and become an ion. (b) Ionization potential is a measure of the ability of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons from another atom to which it is bonded to and become an ion as a result. (0) Ionization potential is the energy required to excite an electron and essentially remove it from the atom and produce an ion. (d) Ionization potential is a measure of the possibility of an atom to become ionized when it forms a bond With another atom. 15. Which of the following atoms is the least likely to form a cation? (a) Be (b) Na (0) Mg (d) Li 5.... an. a... e... 5.... an. .5... oz. 6... 03. 3.5 839 an...» 83.... . .. 3. 3.. . 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This test prep was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course CHEM 1301 taught by Professor Greg during the Fall '08 term at Texas Pan American.

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Chem1301Series1 - CHEMISTRY 1301. SERIES 1. ATOMIC THEORY...

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