Exploring Sociology - Exploring Sociology Functionalism started to develop in the 1800s we all live in societies we live with people and organize

Exploring Sociology - Exploring Sociology Functionalism...

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Unformatted text preview: Exploring Sociology Functionalism -­‐ started to develop in the 1800s -­‐ we all live in societies, we live with people and organize ourselves -­‐ for functionalists they have a very broad understanding of how society works -­‐ society is complex and there are many parts to it (families, religious institutions, health care institutions, education institutions) -­‐ everything works the way we designed them to -­‐ interdependent parts depend on each other (health care depends on education etc) -­‐ social structures are designed to fulfill our wants and desires -­‐society works they way we think it works -­‐ comparison of functionalist thinking -­‐ the argument is that our human body has a lot of systems and they all have to work together and do their thing, if one thing messes up than the human suffers this is an analogy of human society -­‐ systems are beginning to fall apart -­‐ most of us want it to happen the way It happens -­‐ we create institutions for our own interest -­‐ the functionalist is when you fix things -­‐functionalists are very influential Functionalist Theorists -­‐ Darwin influenced many people -­‐ Herbet Spencer: In society those of you who work hard will succeed -­‐ The good trades and the not so good trades are passed down to our future generations -­‐ It really does connect to natural selection -­‐ Societies change over time just like birds, snails, or any other creature -­‐ Laissez-­‐faire you see it in a republican country like America -­‐ **Emile Durkheim: first sociological “hero” -­‐ he was French -­‐ one of the very first professors of education -­‐ we humans need a society -­‐ we need to be in a group with others -­‐ we need to make institution -­‐ our behavior is driven by or controlled by the rules that we have created -­‐ there are certain things of positivism coming -­‐ posivtistic thought says that there is a truth out there -­‐ social facts are facts that exist on their own and are independent -­‐ Durkheim-­‐>social facts-­‐>positivistic thought-­‐>study of suicide -­‐ Another concept is that a notion of anomie -­‐ Anomie is a state of normalness when you feel disconnected in some way with your society or community -­‐ This can happen when you lack clear goals and it can lead to a disconnection to your society -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ What affects suicide rates in France Notion of how we feel with our community Mechanical solidarity is this is what we see in fairly in developed communities like medieval areas Organic solidarity is this is what happens when communities become more complex when towns, villages, cities become more complex he describes later society that the unique things people can do Talcott Parsons Social action theory explains why people do what people do He explained group behaviors Understanding the difference between the actions people do and why they do them Robert Merton Chicago school 1930s He expanded functionalist thinking He thought that social structures have many different functions Ex: one of wloos functions is to provide education Latent functions are the things that our social structures do that we never design them to do When criminals are in jail they are all together and they learn how to do crime better Criticisms of functionalist approaches: One of the criticisms is that functionalists cannot explain social change very well These theorists is like harmonious place and because they do societies work Some people don’t agree with these theorists THEORY NUMBER 1: FUNCTIONALIST 3. Conflict Theory -­‐ societies don’t work in a harmonious way -­‐ what conflict theorists argue is that society is not equal -­‐ societies is not treating everyone the same way -­‐ the very things that you and I understand to be true and take for granted believe to be the case believe the way things should work are our own ideas -­‐social values and the dominant ideology are the vehicles by which the powerful promote their own interests at the expense of the weak -­‐ this is said by Machiavelli, hobbies and Rousseau -­‐ Karl Marx -­‐ a social thinker, a historical philosopher dialectics: a way of seeing history and society as the result of oppositions, contradictions and tensions from which social change can emerge (Hegel) Hegel was one of Karl`s influencers There is kind of an ideal way of thinking how society should be Idealism: human mind and consciousness are more important in understanding the human condition than is the material world -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ We as humans have to live within our physical world We have to live within the societal conditions we create Human consciousness and human interaction with the material world could change society We need to produce stuff okay to produce things we need to have people working together, people manufacturing products together There is a relationship between the material and social elements of society Proletariat and the bourgeoisie Proletariat=the workers Bourgeoisie=rch owners The workers depend on the rich owners Alienation: the process nby which workers are disconnected form what they produce Another important idea in Karl`s thinking In Marx` work he gives a lot of examples and he says okay in a small rural town there was always a blacksmith and the blacksmith created all of his own tools and his own products with his own self so his products were a part of him If you disconnect a human being from the work they did-­‐alienation Exploitation: the difference between what workers are paid and the wealth they create for the owners Ideology: set of beliefs and values that support and justify the ruling class of society We are condition to believe that the system is working just fine Dominant ideology maintains the position of the ruling elite False consciousness your carrying around explanations of how things work even though you don’t believe in them False consciousness: belief in and support of the system that oppresses you Class consciousness: is a recognition of the notion of understanding social classes that recognizes the very existent of dominate oppression 4. Symbolic Interactionism -­‐ this approach to how society works has nothing in much common with functionalist and conflict theory -­‐ they are interested in how we can together create an understanding of how our world works -­‐ highlight the ways in which meanings are created, constructed, mediated and changed by members of a group or society -­‐ Max Weber -­‐Verstehen: a deep understanding and interpretation of subjective social meanings -­‐ Georg Simmel -­‐largely in societies is a collection of all human experience and its patterned interactions -­‐society is what we made/figured out -­‐ we work stuff out, make our own rules -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ Mead and Cooley George Herbert Mead What we are, are actually a group of organisms We have organized ourselves into a collective So we cant survive unless we are part of a group Human mind results form the individual`s ability to respond and engage with the environment Charles H. Cooley One of the things that we do as we evolve as human beings we develop the ability to see how other peoples experiences are We also develop the ability to see ourselves as how other people understand us What are Modern Social Theories? should not be thought of being separate from classical theories draw on each other’s work in their formulations theme of power runs through modern theories (western Marxism, feminist theories, post-­‐structuralism, queer theory, post-­‐colonial theory, anti-­‐racist theory) Western Marxism Antonio Gramsci How do governments, how do powerful groups get us all to behave the way they want us to? Governments don’t like it when citizens ask too many questions Who is the ruling class? Diverged from Marx in his analysis of how the ruling class ruled Domination; physical and violent coercion Hegemony; ideological control and manipulation It is the common way that we come to expect that everything works Hegemonic control systems get us to comply with systems Society`s dominant ideas reflect the interests of the ruling class We agree the hegemonic system Superstructure is divided into two things: state and civil For some reason governments are really keen how penitentiary system, the hegemonic system is that crime is on the increase it is out of control Prevailing consciousness internalized by population and becomes common sense Feminist Theories feminists differ in their explanations of women`s oppression and the nature of gender and in their ideas about women`s emancipation core concern for gender oppression women and men should be equal men have social power and thus an interest in maintain their social privilege over women -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ some feminists men purposely perpetuate the mechanisms of their own power Dorothy Smith-­‐ a second wave feminist Bell hooks-­‐ a third Wave Dorothy Smith Sociology for woman You cannot do sociology on women in the usual way You have to find a unique way to study the lives of women The Everyday World as Problematic: begins in the actualities of people`s lives, and addresses problems of how we are influences by “extra-­‐local” relations “actual” where people live and were their reality is constituted through discourse she was really interested in the way people talked about the world they lived in how do you survive from day to day how do you and I understand our everyday world how is it different for woman than men standpoint-­‐preserves the presence of the subject as an active and experiencing person how does this world develop from day to day change -­‐ Continuation of Lecture Bell hooks -­‐ stand point theory -­‐ the stand point of a woman -­‐ qualitiatve researcher -­‐ she was African American -­‐ black feminist thought -­‐ she researched on what black women went through -­‐ rarely recognized black women as separate from black men -­‐ she thought men dominated house holds -­‐ how is life like for women? Black women in particular -­‐ arguing that we have to see the day to day experiences the women or black women go through Foucault -­‐ he argued that knowledge has a lot to do with power -­‐ we have specific knowledge that we hold, we have power -­‐ Foucault was interested in the power that society gives some individuals -­‐ The powers individuals have -­‐ Knowledge gives you power -­‐ Power created within social relationships, multidimensional, found everywhere and always at work -­‐ Where does the power come from? -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ How does the power work? Knowledge can never be separated from relations of power Discourses basically means accepted way we talk Discourses: guide how we think, act and speak What is appropriate to talk about? Tell us how the world is and how it ought to be Panoptic on the central view point can see what everyone is doing and the people would not know they are being watched -­‐ Surveillance can be when you make people think that you are watching them all the time -­‐ Discipline is how we come to be motivated to produce particular realities -­‐ The police have real power -­‐ The military has real power -­‐ But we cant use physical force all the time-­‐inefficient -­‐ Discouraging others is a behavior that comes from power -­‐ Disciple (form of power) works through surveillance -­‐ Surveillance: acts of observing, recording and training -­‐ Normalization a process that we buy into -­‐ Normalization: a social process by which some practices and ways of living are deemed normal and others abnormal Queer Theory -­‐ one of its major arguments starts form the assumption that everyone should be the same -­‐ you should share some similar characteristics -­‐ problematizes the standard of equality based on sameness -­‐ we shouldn’t start from assuming sameness is normal -­‐ three main areas of queer theory: desire, language and identity -­‐ Desire: -­‐ To look at disrupting categories of normal and acceptable sexuality -­‐ Drop the notions with a normal thought -­‐ Language: -­‐ Unable to capture whole truth of reality -­‐ Normal vs abnormal -­‐ Identity: -­‐ Social production -­‐ Our identity as human beings is much of a product of our socialization -­‐ Our identity is our social production -­‐ Constructed through social relations and discourse Post-­‐Colonial Theory -­‐ focus on the political and cultural effects of colonialism -­‐ Imperialism: “what happens at home” -­‐ Where we stand as a country -­‐ How we behave -­‐ How we understand our relationship with the world -­‐ Colonialism: “What happens away from home” -­‐ -­‐ Those countries are still experience some difficulties form colonial power Post suggests a focus on events that happened after form colonialism ended in the early 1960s England stole control of Canada in the past Canada and internal colonialism-­‐ aboriginal peoples Are we really out of colonialism in Canada? -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ Canada and Colonialism -­‐ Canada has its own colonial history -­‐ What the aboriginals went through -­‐ Aboriginals finding jobs, education system -­‐ There are certain groups that are treated badly in Canada Anti-­‐Racist Theories -­‐ critical race theory -­‐ we don’t always see race in Canada -­‐ argues that we have to understand that is happening in our society today because of the consequence of what has happened in the past -­‐ racial inequality in society -­‐ racism is endemic to American life -­‐ argues that acts of racism are not isolated, they are not random, spontaneous, they are not individual acts they are part of a society`s history -­‐ argues that we cant escape historical racism when we study what happens in the law, court cases -­‐ draw in experiences-­‐understand the history of it -­‐ interdisciplinary-­‐ history, social science, law to understand -­‐ intersectional-­‐ have to understand how they all play a role -­‐ Lens of historical racism: ...
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