1DARYLLE JAKE B. SARIEGO | BS PHARMACYCENTRO ESCOLAR UNIVERSITY – MANILAPRPM111Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry with Qualitative AnalysisLectureModule 3:Chemistry of Elements in the Periodic Table1ELEMENTS OF GROUP I-A GROUP 1Group I-A comprises the most reactive of all the metallic elements, and the activity increases with atomicnumber. The cations of these elements are stable chemically; the1free elements are not found in nature.1They are found in nature as a compound or in a compound state.The single positive charge of the nucleus is screened effectively by the inert gas shell, thus thesecations have little or no polarizing effect on anions and molecules and therefore do not formcomplexes– 2 or more bonds.The hydroxides (OH) give alkaline solutions (basic pH), alkalinity increasing with atomic number. Alkalimetal salts of common inorganic and organic acids are ionic, are usually colorless and, with fewexceptions,arereadilysolubleinwater.Aqueoussolutionsofthesalts are neutral to strongly basic, depending on the strength of the anion as a Brønsted base –proton acceptor.ElementChemical nameFormulaUsesLITHIUMLithium carbonateLi2CO3Treatment ofbipolar disorderhaving2 phases of mood:•Mania – hyper, wild, irritable, can’tsleep•Depression – depressed, lowmood. taken together with anantidepressant.The change of mood happensgradually, usually over months.Primary management formania.SODIUMSodium chloride•Rock Salt•Table Salt(Chloride –electrolytereplenisher)NaClElectrolyte replenisher– replenishesloss of electrolytes which ispotassium, sodium, bicarbonate ion,etc.Instances when we lose electrolytes:Vomiting, diarrhea – Txthru oralreplacement salts (ORS) that containssalt with appropriate solution,excessive sweating, diureticmedication.Sodiumbicarbonate•Baking soda(Soda = sodium)(Bicarbonate –buffer, antacid)NaHCO3•Buffer– compounds added to amixture to resist changes in pH.•Systemic alkalinizer– oralpreparation to raise blood pH.–management ofmetabolicacidosiswhich is acondition characterized by aSODIUMlower blood pH or below thenormal range < 7.4.•Antacid– anti acid, used when acidincreases in the stomachcharacterized by pain, diarrhea,weakness, nausea.Sodium tetraborateNa2B4O7•Borax•Water softener•Antiseptic– anti microorganism,kills microorganism that can causeinfection. Commonly used in the eyes.Sodium carbonate•Washing soda•sal sodaNa2CO3•AntacidSodium citrateNa₃C₆H₅O₇•Buffer•Alkalinizer•Sequestering agent– for binding toother compound.Sodium fluorideNaF•Dental prophylactic– anticaries,anticariogenic, anti-plaque.Sodium hydroxide•Caustic soda –caustic meaning itcauses irritation.