# Statistical-Package-for-Social-Sciences -...

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Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)Contents1.Introduction to SPSS2.Important Concepts3.Data base concepts4. Coding5.The SPSS environment6.Preparation of data file7.Data screening8.Accessing Normality9.Data manipulation10.Data transformation
Introduction to SPSSStatistical package for social sciences used for the data entry and statistical analysis.SPSS is used by students and researchers.Main Pre-requisiteStatistical KnowledgeSPSS does not have a brain, it can't decide which analysis or graph is appropriate. It canonly follow commands.Important ConceptsConstantA characteristic that has same values for all individualsVariableA characteristic that can assume any one of several valuesVariable types1.numeric(numbers only)2.alphabetic (alphabets only)3.string (alphabets, numbers and special characters)Variable Measurement Level1.categorical/nominal2.ordinal3.interval4.ratioClassification of Variables1.independent variables
2.dependent variables3.extraneous variablesData base Concepts1.field/ column2.record/ case/ row3.cell4.data file5.data base(a collection of data files)SPSS provides a spread sheet view of data. A spread sheet is a collection of dataorganized in rows and columns. Columns consists of all variables names and rowsconsists of detail information of reach respondent.S.noRespondentDepressionAnxietyPsychosis1.Respondent 1109162.Respondent 291033.Respondent 3152104.Respondent 41895.Respondent 54179SPSS is meant to be used mostly for quantitative research. Using data in numerical formis coded. It is not appropriate for an in depth qualitative research.CodingIt is initial step in data reduction in which units of behavior or particular events areidentified and classified according to specific criteria. Usually units are assigned anumerical code. For example:Male may be coded as 1Female may be coded as 2

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