Statistical-Package-for-Social-Sciences - (SPSS Contents 1 Introduction to SPSS 2 Important Concepts 3 Data base concepts 4 Coding 5 The SPSS

# Statistical-Package-for-Social-Sciences - (SPSS Contents 1...

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Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Contents 1. Introduction to SPSS 2. Important Concepts 3. Data base concepts 4. Coding 5. The SPSS environment 6. Preparation of data file 7. Data screening 8. Accessing Normality 9. Data manipulation 10.Data transformation
Introduction to SPSS Statistical package for social sciences used for the data entry and statistical analysis. SPSS is used by students and researchers. Main Pre-requisite Statistical Knowledge SPSS does not have a brain, it can't decide which analysis or graph is appropriate. It can only follow commands. Important Concepts Constant A characteristic that has same values for all individuals Variable A characteristic that can assume any one of several values Variable types 1. numeric(numbers only) 2. alphabetic (alphabets only) 3. string (alphabets, numbers and special characters) Variable Measurement Level 1. categorical/nominal 2. ordinal 3. interval 4. ratio Classification of Variables 1. independent variables
2. dependent variables 3. extraneous variables Data base Concepts 1. field/ column 2. record/ case/ row 3. cell 4. data file 5. data base(a collection of data files) SPSS provides a spread sheet view of data. A spread sheet is a collection of data organized in rows and columns. Columns consists of all variables names and rows consists of detail information of reach respondent. S.no Respondent Depression Anxiety Psychosis 1. Respondent 1 10 9 16 2. Respondent 2 9 10 3 3. Respondent 3 15 2 10 4. Respondent 4 1 8 9 5. Respondent 5 4 17 9 SPSS is meant to be used mostly for quantitative research. Using data in numerical form is coded. It is not appropriate for an in depth qualitative research. Coding It is initial step in data reduction in which units of behavior or particular events are identified and classified according to specific criteria. Usually units are assigned a numerical code. For example: Male may be coded as 1 Female may be coded as 2