Lecture 15-16 Genome Total genetic material of an organism Complete DNA sequence Proteome Entire protein complement expressed by a genome or by a cell or tissue type. DYNAMIC Metabolomics Small molecules found in biological fluids Genomics Development and application of genetic mapping, sequencing and computation (bioinformatics) to analyze genomes 1) Structural Genomics – Genetic and physical mapping of genomes a. Map and sequence bit by bit a.i. Dividing genome into segments, refine the map, and sequence DNA. Requires lots of resolution. b. Shotgun sequence all at once. b.i. Break the genome in random overlapping fragments, sequence DNA, and reassemble with a computer. 2) Functional Genomics – Analysis of gene function (and non-genes) 3) Comparative genomics – comparison of genomes across species a. Structural and functional genomics b. Evolutionary genomics Is the sum total of all an individual’s genes. It analysis the genes of cells,tissue, DNA (genotype), mRNA (transcriptome), or protein (proteome). Aids in understanding the normal, adaptive, and abnormal cellular functions. Genetic Mapping (linkage mapping) Determine the location of genes on chromosomes relative to the other genes using pedigrees and crosses. Use recombination frequencies to determine a gene’s location on a chromosome. GMs can locate a genetic disease. WE require 24 different maps, one for each of the 22 autosomes and one each for the X and Y chromosome. High density genetic mapping was revolutionized by the discovery of abundant polymorphic genetic markers (microsatellites). Still lacked resolution for humans. Average distance between markers was 600kbs Physical map Map of physically identifiable regions of genomic DNA constructed without recombination analysis.
- Fall '12
- DNA, complete DNA sequence