Comm 397M Midterm Exam Review Sheet

Comm 397M Midterm Exam Review Sheet - Comm 397M Midterm...

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Comm 397M Midterm Exam Review Sheet Modernization Theory - Born between 1950’s and early 1960’s as an alternative paradigm to Marxist ideology o Quest for a new society: “traditional society” transformed into “modern societies” - Consequences of modernization: Case of the telephone o Dystopian View Fosters alienation, individualism, isolation Fast communication makes social life more complex Breaks with traditions o Utopian View Social cohesion, strengthening community Fast communication facilitates social life Breaks with traditions - Ideal of modernity has historically inspired studies of technology and society o Modern societies have achieved progress o Technological development = Progress o Technological developments support markets and industrialization o Technological development as an aspiration of modernization o Progress is driven by industrial development and free markets; It responds to o Always leads to “social change” Technology as a cultural object - Technology as a system o The physical device (object) o Meanings constructed around it o Ways of employing it - As an expression of our own culture Technological Change Social Change - The process by which alteration occurs in the structure and function of a social system - Occurs when new ideas are invented, diffused, and are adopted or rejected, leading to certain consequences - Modernization - Personal Sphere o Changes in the quality of personal bonds o Psychological impacts
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- Social Sphere o Industrial and commercial development o Organizational changes - Change FOR WHOM and WHAT FOR? o Real social changes is about POWER RELATIONS, not just a mere shift in social dynamics Web 2.0 Technological Determinism - Technology determines society - Technological development as the driver of history; technology drives society - Innovations are typically achieved through the genius of a great man - Great mean or inventors are part of an elite - Technological inventions have a life by themselves - The innovation is a sign of technological process - Technological development occurs through “discoveries” - Technology determines the nature and content of communications - Social change occurs through technological change Cultural determinism (social constructivism) - Society determines technology and how we use it: ex. Cell phone – it can do so much now, but we still mainly use it as a phone - Focus on social forces (knowledge, economic forges, political processes, cultural factors, etc), institutions, and cultural factors behind the development of technology o There are social factors that accelerate the adoption of new technology, while others deter them. -
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Comm 397M Midterm Exam Review Sheet - Comm 397M Midterm...

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