Anthro 103 Exam - 4/6/2008 6:47:00 PM Anthro 103 Exam #2...

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01:47 Anthro 103 Exam #2  Review Sheet Natural Selection Primates Mammals with grasping hands, large brains, high degress of learned rather  than innate beavior Order of Primates is divided into two suborders: Strepsirhini and Haplorhini Strepsirhines should not be considered more primitive than haplorhines haplorhine ( Haplorhini):  Infraorder of the order Primates that includes the  anthropoids and the tarsier. Tarsiers, monkeys, apes, humans strepsirhine ( Strepsirhini) Infraorder of the order Primates that includes the  prosimians, excluding the tarsier. Lemurs, lorises, and galagoes Primate body plan is GENERALIZED, not specialized Gives then versatility: most primates engage in a wide variety of modes of  travel from arm swinging to running, leaping and walking All non human primates are quadrapeds, designed for moving while using all  four limbs, but there is a great variation in the way they use their limbs Grasping Hands with opposable thumbs or big toes
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Believed to be the fundamental primate adaption, although not all completely  possess this trait Most have 4 digits per hand and foot, and have the ability to grasp objects  with a greater precision than many other mammals Nonhuman primates have an opposable hallux (big toe) Colobine monkeys, gibbons and spider monkeys – the four fingers are so long  and the thunb is so short, the cannot grasp well Flattened Nails The primate grasping hand has flattened nails at the end of the digits instead  of claws True for all primates except for the marmosets and tamarins Many Strepsirhines have a combination of nails and single clawed digit on  their hands and feet Forward Facing Eyes and Steroscopic Vision Stereoscopic view enables excellent depth perception Overlapping fields of vision = 3 dimensional view Four Primate Trends Adaptation to arboreal life o Grasping hands and feet, opposable thumb and big toe Reliance on sight o Post orbital bar o Stereoscopic vision – depth perception, acute vision, ability to focus o Color vision
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Unspecialized dentition o Cusps are low, rounded o Variable diets Greater dependence on learning as opposed to instinct o We have to spend a lot of time socializing o Large brains relative to body size – capacity to learn o Extended juvenile periods Arboreal Hypothesis Hypothesis for the origin of primate adaption that focuses on the values of  grasping hands and stereoscopic vision for life in the trees Frederic Wood-Jones and George Elliot-Smith, England 1920’s Widely accepted until challenged by Matthew Cartmill in the 1970’s
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course ANTHRO 103 taught by Professor Holt during the Spring '08 term at UMass (Amherst).

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Anthro 103 Exam - 4/6/2008 6:47:00 PM Anthro 103 Exam #2...

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