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Cp 1 – Introducing Economic Development: A Global Perspective“We have a collective responsibility to uphold the principles of human dignity, equalityand equity at the global level. As leaders we have a duty therefore to all the world’speople, especially the most vulnerable and, in particular, the children of the world, towhom the future belongs.” –United Nations, Millennium Declaration,September 8, 2000“Development can be seen…as a process of expanding the real freedoms that peopleenjoy.” –Amartya Sen, Nobel Laureate in economics“Globalization offers incredible opportunities. Yet exclusion, grinding poverty, andenvironmental damage create dangers. The ones that suffer most are those who havethe least to start with – indigenous peoples, women in developing countries, the ruralpoor, Africans, and their children.” –Robert Zoellick, president, World Bank,2007Under necessaries, therefore, I comprehend, not only those things which nature, butthose things which established rules of decency, have rendered necessary to the lowestrank of people.” –Adam Smith, The Wealth of NationsI. How the Other Half LiveWhen one is poor, she has no say in public, she feels inferior. She has no food, sothere is famine in her house; no clothing, and no progress in her family.—A poor woman from UgandaFor a poor person everything is terrible—illness, humiliation, shame. We arecripples; we are afraid of everything; we depend on everyone. No one needs us. Weare like garbage that everyone wants to get rid of.—A blind woman from Tiraspol, MoldovaLife in the area is so precarious that the youth and every able person have tomigrate to the towns or join the army at the war front in order to escape the hazardsof hunger escalating over here.—Participant in a discussion group in rural EthiopiaWhen food was in abundance, relatives used to share it. These days of hunger,however not even relatives would help you by giving you some food.—Young man in Nichimishi, ZambiaWe have to line up for hours before it is our turn to draw water.—Mbwadzulu Village (Mangochi), Malawi[Poverty is] . . . low salaries and lack of jobs. And it’s also not having medicine, food,and clothes.—Discussion group, BrazilDon’t ask me what poverty is because you have met it outside my house. Look at thehouse and count the number of holes. Look at the utensils and the clothes I amwearing. Look at everything and write what you see. What you see is poverty.—Poor man in KenyaA universal theme reflected in these seven quotes is that poverty is more thanlack of income – it is inherently multidimensional, as is economicdevelopment.ConceptsoAbsolute poverty – a situation of being unable to meet the minimum levels ofincome, food, clothing, healthcare, shelter, and other essentials1
oSubsistence economy – an economy in which production is mainly forpersonal consumption and the standard of living yields little more than basic