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PhilosophyofMan''ThePhenomenologicalMethod''presents a simplified accountofhowthephenomenological approach differs from the traditiqnal scholastic approach,howitwas. startedbyEdmundHusserl a!ldwhatitaims to reach (the original lived experience); somecharacteristicsofthe phenomenological attitude,andthe three important stepsofthemethod( epoche, .eideticreduction, andtranscendental-phenomenological reduction).Themostimportant insightofphenomenology, the intentionalityofconsciousness (consciousness isconsciousnessofsomething other than consciousness itself) linksitto the phenomenologicalmethodofGabriel Marcel, the secondary reflection, which recaptures theunityoforiginalexperience,theunityofsubjectandobject, theunitythatisbrokenbyprimary reflection.Richard Schmitt describes Husserl's transcendental-phenomenological reduction asa~ovementfrom non-reflective thinkingtoa reflective attitude with.the useofthe epocheandthe reduction.Thedifference between reflection andmerethinking doesnotlie in theobject as being insideoroutside themindbutindetached suspensionofall naturalbeliefin the objectofexperience, the world outsideoroneself(epoche),andthe reductionoftheexperience into''merephenomenon," leading usbackto the sourceofmeaningandexistenceofthe experienced world (intentionalityofconsciousness). Reflection expandsinto two directions:noematic,where''theworldis examined in relationtomyselfwhenItry to distinguish those aspectsofexperience which are genuinely evident from thosewhichImerely assumeorsuppose to bethecase,"andnoetic,where''thesubject is examined inrelationto theworldwhen Iinquireinto thebeliefs,feelings,desires, etc., which shapedthe experience aboutwhichIamnotreflecting.'' This reduction is called 'transcendental'because noetic analysis uncoverstheego for which everything has meaningandexistence.Quentin Lauer examines Husserl's ''transcendental subjectivity'' as the sourceofall objectivity. Tobesubjective isnottobe a subjectivistbutto enter into the necessaryconditionofobjectivity. ''Without subjectivity, therecanbenoobjectivity; therecanbenoobjects; there can onlybechaos without significance.''Thewayahumanbeing is, istoexist,andto exist istobeconscious, to give significant being to things. Being isbothsubjectandobject and their mutuality is constitutiveoftheir being.RamonVicente Sunico's essay gives us some helpful tips in reading GabrielMarcel'sclassic article ''Primary.andSecondary· Reflection:TheExistential Fulcrum''andatthesametime highlights some impo11ant insightsofMarcelonreflection, primaryandsecondary, theexistential fulcrum, the body,andthe.exclamatory awarenessofone'sexistence.

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Term
Fall
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Phenomenology, Martin Heidegger, Edmund Husserl

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