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Chemistry - Lab write up (4-03)

Chemistry - Lab write up (4-03) - Exp Seven The Spontaneity...

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Exp. Seven The Spontaneity of a Chemical Reaction Date: 04/03/07 Objectives: The objectives of this experiment were to measure the enthalpy changes that accompany the dissolution of a salt in water and also to demonstrate that the true indicator of a spontaneous chemical reaction is the free energy change, not the enthalpy change. Procedure: The procedure used can found on pages 63-64 of the General Chemistry II Lab manual for the spring semester of 2007. Pre-Lab: a) Equation: Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) AgCl (s) ∆G°= [(-109.8)-(77.12-131.3)] = -55.66 kJ/mole Q = 1/ [Ag + ][Cl - ] = (1/[.1M][.1M])= 100 ∆G = [(-55.66x10 3 J/mol) + (8.31J/mol x K) x 298K x ln(100) = -44.2kJ/ mole Spontaneous b) Equation: Ca 2+ (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) + 2H 2 O(l) CaSO 4 x 2H 2 O (s) ∆G°= [(-1797.28) – (-553.04 - 744.6+ (2x237.19))] = -24.98 kJ/mole Q = 1/ [Ca 2+ ][SO 4 2- ] = (1/[.25][.25]) = 16 ∆G = [(-24.98x10 3 J/mole) + (8.31J/mol x K) x 298K x ln(16) = 18110.7 J/mole Spontaneous c) Equation: Na + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) NaNO 3 (s) ∆G°= [(-367)-(-261.87-110.5)] = 5.40 kJ/mole Q = 1/[Na + ][ NO 3 - ] = (1/[.1][.25]) = 40 ∆G = [(5.40x10 3 J/mole) + (8.31J/mol x K) x 298K x ln(40) = 14535.1 J/ mole Non-spontaneous Experimental Data: >>> PART A: Confirmation of Pre-lab Predictions <<< Equation Observations
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