COMM_203_Reading_Study_Guide

COMM_203_Reading_Study_Guide - COMM 203 Reading Review...

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COMM 203 Reading Review Study Guide Smith et al (1998) - 4 foundations of study o Foundation 1: Television violence contributes to harmful effects on viewers o Foundation 2: Three types of harmful effects can occur from viewing televised violence Learning aggressive attitudes and behaviors Desensitization to violence Increased fear of being victimized by violence o Foundation 3: Not all violence poses the same degree of risk of these harmful effects Attractive perpetrator Attractive victim Justified violence Conventional weapons Extensive/graphic violence Realistic violence Rewards/punishments Pain/harm cues Humor Contextual Factors Learning Fear Desensitize Attractive Perpetrators Attractive Target Justified Violence Unjustified violence Presence of Weapons Extensive/Graphic Violence Realistic Violence Rewards Punishments Pain Harm Cues Humor o Foundation 4: Not all viewers are affected by violence in the same way - Major Findings o Violence in TV programming overall
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o The way that most TV violence is portrayed continues to pose risks to viewers: Much of TV violence is still glamorized Most violence on TV continues to be sanitized Much of the serious physical aggression on TV is still trivialized Very few programs emphasize an anti-violence theme o Violence continues to pervade American television Across the 3 years of this study, a steady 60% of TV programs contain violence In prime time, the proportion of programs with violence has increased on the broadcast networks and on basic cable The typical violence program contains at least 6 violence incidents per hour o For children under 7, high-risk portrayals of violence that teach aggression are found most often in cartoons Certain depictions can be labeled “high risk” because several plot elements that encourage aggressive attitudes and behaviors are all featured in one scene. - High Risk o Portrayals with the greatest risk of increasing young children’s aggressive behavior are those that feature an attractive perpetrator engaging in justified violence that goes unpunished and shows minimal consequences - Anti-Violence Theme o Depicting negative consequences of violent behavior in anti-violence PSAS is more effective at influencing adolescents beliefs about violence than showing no consequences o Adolescents know the importance of depicting negative consequences o When violence is presented, consider greater emphasis on a strong anti-violence theme Present alternatives to violent actions throughout the program Show main characters repeatedly discussing the negative consequences of violence Emphasize the physical pain and emotional suffering that results from violence Show that punishments for violence clearly and consistently outweigh rewards o Recommendations Anti-violence Media Campaigns
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COMM_203_Reading_Study_Guide - COMM 203 Reading Review...

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