Study guide - Ethical Philosophy - Together the word...

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Ethical Philosophy - Together the word philosophy is formed meaning the love of wisdom 3 Major studies of philosophy - metaphysics o literally means above physics o physics is the study of physical properties- what is above that is what holds the world together o metaphysics deals with universal concepts, it looks at what holds the universe together o Ex) God- he holds it all together - Epistemology o This is the study of knowledge: how you come to know something o Closely related to meta physics o Ex) God holds the universe together. (metaphysics)/ How do you know that? (Epistemology) - Ethics o How should I conduct myself o What kind of life do I want Classical Athens (500-300 BCE) - Birth of democracy, theater, philosophy, Socrates, Plato and other philosophers “Thou shall not steal” - there is no real reason for this- it is because God said so - This type of thinking shuts off human desire for explanation; it is irrational - The Greeks tried to take ethics outside the realm of religion - They wanted to offer rational explanation The source of Morality: where people look for the source of moral code - It can be supernatural (God) - It can be from Natural law (Social Darwanism) o Nature cannot be wrong or right it just is, but people use it as justification for morality o It is natural to try and survive and advance in society: this is right. It is not natural to stop that process in any way: this behavior is wrong. - Subjective- you choose your morals and I will choose mine Plato: - Socrates (couldn’t read or write so he walked around asking questions) student, ancient Athenian - Plato wrote Dialogues one of which was Euthyphro (first of a series of 3) o Dialogue about piety o Socrates has been accused of being impious and is on his was to go defend himself when he runs into Euthyphro who is on his way to accuse his own father of murder The two walk and talk as Socrates ask Euthyphro questions causing him to further ponder piety
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Socrates (470-399BCE) - An active Athenian during the height of its power - He wrote nothing, he claimed he couldn’t read or write o One can compare him to Jesus, we have his word as told by others - He would walk through the streets and engage in conversation; he would challenge people trying to get them to define various ideas - He would confront leaders; telling them they don’t know what terms mean - He claimed ignorance; I don’t know so teach me - He was arrested and executed o One of the worse blemishes on ancient Greek history - He became the Hero of Plato- and Athenian writer who would follow around Socrates and write down what he said Euthyphro The dialogue - we begin to see the difference between a philosophical ethics and religious ethics o Euthyphro grounds his ethics in the religion- what the gods want o Socrates takes ethics away from the gods and adds logic - Socrates uses the dialectical method to probe Euthyphro o He is constantly asking questions- this is known as the Socratic method - This is a quest for definition
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Study guide - Ethical Philosophy - Together the word...

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