COMM_203_Lecture_Study_Guide - Television Violence Factors...

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Television Violence - Factors that contribute to violence in society o Multiple factors: Gangs membership Drugs and alcohol Poverty Brain damage Impulsivity Racism - How NTVS study came about o National Television Violence Studies Government pressure Two studies were done: Broadcast networks (UCSB study) Cable networks - Limits of previous research o All previous research until 1990’s is limited because all violent acts were lumped together as one o Didn’t focus on “harm” - Each contextual factor, effect, reason o Attractive perpetrators: increase learning; heroes/good guys o Attractive target: increase fear; empathize w/ good guys o Justified violence: increase learning; legitimize behavior o Unjustified violence: decrease in learning, increase in fear; undeserved or malicious violence
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o Presence of weapons: increase learning; devices often trigger memory of past violent events & behavior (priming effect less likely to occur with unconventional weapons) o Extensive/graphic violence: increase in learning, fear, and desensitization o Realistic violence: increase in learning and fear; cartoons – difficulty distinguishing reality from fantasy; realistic violence portraying brutality can also induce fear o Rewards: increase in learning and fear; glamorized/rewarded/unpunished o Punishments: decrease in learning and fear o Pain harm cues: decrease learning; serious harm/pain discourage viewers from imitating/learning aggression o Humor: increase learning and desensitization; violence cast in humorous light – less devastating/harmful, humor as reward for violence - Sample (type, how was it constructed) o Composite week each year o Program slots selected randomly throughout television season by time slot and day each week, 2 shows selected per day, per channel holiday programming, non holiday programming; typical programming, non- typical programming etc. 23 channels 6 am to 11 pm 3000 programs per year (total a little over 9000 programs) o Excluded Programs Shorts Breaking News Infomercials Game Shows Religious Programs - Difference between composite week, in tact week
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o Composite week Sampling frame of all programs within 23 channels from 6 a.m. to 11 p.m. during a 26 week schedule Individual programs were selected from sampling frame such that each was given an equal chance of being chosen To construct a full composite week for each of the 23 channels, the sampling stratified within channels o In tact week Take one or more weeks intact and analyzing all programs within that period Unlikely that one intact week of output would represent the nature of program output throughout the year - Stipulations of NTVS Definition o Intent to harm There had to be a perpetrator that had an intention to harm another character No accidents No natural disaster o physical harm all caustic humor, verbal abuse, etc are OUT it has to lead to potential injury or harm to a character o animate beings
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