assignment 1 - 1 2 Proteins are polymers of amino acid...

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1) 2) Proteins are polymers of amino acid linked through peptid bonds into chains. There are 20 different amino acids that make up all proteins on earth. Each is bonded to a hydrogen, a carboxyl, an amino acid, and a unique side chain or R group. Structural features of proteins are usually described at four levels of complexity: Primary structure: the linear arrangement of amino acids in a protein and the location of covalent linkages such as disulfide bonds between amino acids. Secondary structure: areas of folding or coiling within a protein; examples include alpha helices and pleated sheets, which are stabilized by hydrogen bonding. Tertiary structure: the final three-dimensional structure of a protein, which results from a large number of non-covalent interactions between amino acids. Quaternary structure: non- covalent interactions that bind multiple polypeptides into a single, larger protein. Hemoglobin has quaternary structure due to association of two alpha globin and two beta globin polyproteins.
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Unformatted text preview: 3) Water follows or ³ows form a lower to a higher concentraTon of ions called osmosis. Water is a´racted to, or goes into, cells with higher concentraTons of sodium. ±he cells start swelling because the ³ow of water into such cells. If the outer soluTon or environment has a higher concentraTon of salt then the water will leave the cell and go into the surrounding soluTon making the cell shrink. In the pool, your blood has a higher concentraTon of sodium ions, and they shrivel because the ions go down their concentraTon gradient. However, in the salt water, the sodium in the water is higher, causing the cells to burst because the cell is ²lling up with the sodium ions. 4a) A±G GCG GGA ACG CA± GAG ±GA 4b) A=±, ±=A, G=C, C=G. DNA is double stranded and the strands are H bonded together, the two strands have to complement each other by following the base pairing rules....
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