Final Review - big points

Final Review - big points - Pasteurization Method Batch...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

* Pasteurization: Method Params Approx Shelf Life - Batch 145˚F for 30min ~ 12 days - ↑ Tempt, Short Time 161˚F for 15sec ~ 14 days - Ultra Pasteurized 280˚F for 2sec; conv pack ~ 45-60 days - Ultra High Temp 280˚F for 2sec; aseptic pack ~ 6mo at room temp, 1 yr in fridge * Shelf life of food depends on: composition of the food, microbiological quality, processing method, packaging system, storage conditions * Roles of microorganisms in food: - Beneficial: fermented dairy, meat, veggies and other - Food Spoilage: off flavors & physical defects - Harmful: food borne illness * Major food incidents result from: mishandling, incorrect ingredients, packaging problems, lack of attention to detail, malicious contamination * Factors affecting rise in food borne illnesses: - Changes in food processing technologies - Increase in food prepared outside the home - Changes in microorganisms (fewer cells needed to cause illness/some are more sever) …However, there are improved diagnostic techniques * Food borne pathogens: EColi, listeria monocytogenes (can grow in fridge), salmonella, hep A, norovirus * Factors increasing the risk of food borne infection/severity: - Age <5yrs: lack of developed immune system - Age >50-60yrs: immune system failing - Pregnancy: altered immune system during pregnancy - Hospitalized people: individuals already debilitated by illness - Poor hygiene * Physical hazards: glass, plastic, metal fragments… can cause injury * Chemical hazards: toxic metals, poisonous chemicals, intentional food additives (Niacin: B 12 in Rochester bagels), poisonous plants, marine (seafood) toxins * PSP: Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: can occur in shellfish, clams, scallops, and oysters. With the right combination of factors, dinoflagellates reproduce rapidly and produce a red-brown color on water → “red tide”. Molluskin shellfish infected. Here the saxitoxin blocks the sodium pores of nerve and muscle membranes and prevents sodium ions from entering the cells. * Scombroid Poisoning: A histamine intoxication that occurs in scombroid and related fish. With temp abuse, these organisms convert AA’s to histamine. Cooking/canning/freezing has no effect on scombrotoxin so the only way to prevent it is to put the fish in <40˚F ASAP * Cigueatera Fish Poisoning: Caused by consumption of tropical and subtropical reef fish that have accumulated naturally-occurring toxins in their diet. The fish do not food directly on plankton, but on smaller fish that feed on poisonous algae or plankton. Ciguatoxin is heat-stable so salting, drying, and cooking won’t inactivate the toxin. * Food borne illnesses: - Intoxications: caused by eating TOXINS produced by the growth of bacteria/mold ~ Bacterial intoxications: staphylococcus aureus & bacillus cereus (vomiting type) - Infections: caused by eating food w/ LIVING PATHOGENIC MICROorganisms ~ Bacterial infections: salmonella - Toxin-mediated infections: from eating food with bacteria that PRODUCE TOXIN in human intestine ~ Ex: bacillus cereus (diarrheal type), EColi O157:H7
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • Spring '07
  • Bacteria, Foodborne illness, food additives

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern