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ch 14 - chapter 14 The major motives of life Love sex food...

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The major motives of life:  Love, sex, food, and work chapter 14
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Overview Motives to love Motives for sex Motives to eat Motives to achieve chapter 14
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Defining motivation An inferred process within a person or animal that causes movement either toward a goal or away from an unpleasant situation Intrinsic motivation: the pursuit of an activity for its own sake Extrinsic motivation: the pursuit of an activity for external rewards such as money or fame chapter 14
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The biology of love Neurological origins of passionate love begin in infancy when infants attach to mother. Certain neurotransmitters and hormones involved in pleasure and reward are activated in mother- baby, adult lover, and close friend bonds. Endorphins Functional MRI’s have shown other neurological similarities. Certain parts of the brains light up when people look at pictures of sweethearts and biological children. chapter 14
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The psychology of love The need for affiliation The motive to associate with other people, by seeking friends, companionship, or love Predictors of love Proximity: choosing friends and lovers from the set of people who are closest to us Similarity: choosing friends and lovers who are like us in looks, attitudes, beliefs, personality, and interests chapter 14
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The attachment theory of  love Like infants to their caregivers, adults have attachment styles to their partners. Secure: rarely jealous or worried about abandonment Avoidant: distrustful, avoids intimate attachments Anxious-ambivalent: agitated and worried partner will leave chapter 14
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Ingredients of love Sternberg’s triangular theory of love Passion: euphoria and sexual excitement Intimacy: being free to talk about things, feeling close to and understood by loved ones Commitment: needing to be with the other person, being loyal Ideal love involves all three. chapter 14
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Hormones and sexual  response Testosterone appears to promote sexual desire in both sexes. Documentation included several studies of men and women. However, not a simple relationship Sexual behavior also increases testosterone. Psychological factors are usually more important than hormones. Sexual offenders who are chemically castrated don’t always lose sexual desires. chapter 14
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Arousal and orgasm Freud differentiated between “immature” clitoral orgasms and “mature” vaginal orgasms.
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