Module 2 Tissues.pdf - Tissue Level of Organization...

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Tissue Levelof OrganizationHistologyPhilippine Rehabilitation Institite Fdn., Inc.
Levels of Organization of the Human Body
Chemical levelWhat is the most abundant chemical compound in the human body?What is the most abundant chemical element in the human body?
Cell integrity and functionBiochemical reactionsNutrient distributionTemperature regulationLubricationChemical level
Simple sugarsFatty acids and glycerolAmino acidsNucleotidesChemical levelOther important chemical compounds
Cellular levelWhat are the 2 types of cells?
Tissue level of OrganizationTissue = aggregation of similar cells thatperform a specific functions.Histology- the microscopic study of tissues.
4 Types of TissuesEpithelial tissueConnective tissueMuscle tissueNervous tissue
Epithelial tissue or epitheliumCovers body and organ surfaces, linesbody cavities and luminaForms various glandsConnective tissueBinds, supports, and protects body partsMuscle tissueContracts to enable locomotion andmovement within the bodyNervous tissueInitiates and conducts nerve impulsesthat coordinate body activities4 Types of Tissues
Epithelial TissueLines every body surface and all body cavities.Forms both the external and internal lining ofmany organs.Constitutes the majority of glands.Composed of one or more layers of closelypacked cells that form a barrier between twocompartments having different components.Little to no extracellular matrix.No blood vessels penetrate an epithelium.
Epithelial TissueExamples:Epidermis of the skin, linings of the oraland nasal cavities,esophagus, vaginaand anal canal, ducts of larger sweatglands, salivary glands and pancreas
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue:CellularityComposed almost entirely of cells boundclosely together by different types of celljunctions.
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue:PolarityApical surface (free, or top, surface)Intercellular junctionsBasal surface (fixed, or bottom, surface)
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue:AttachmentThe basal surface of an epithelium is bound toa thin basement membrane.

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