Chapter 4- Behavior and Attitude - Chapter 4 Behavior and...

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Chapter 4- Behavior and AttitudeAttitude: A favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone (oftenrooted in one’s beliefs, and exhibited in one’s feelings and intended behavior).oThree dimensions of attitudes (ABCs): Affect (feelings), behavior tendency, and cognition (thoughts).I.How Well Do Our Attitudes Predict Our Behavior?a.Self-described racial attitudes provided little clue to behaviors in actual situations.b.“Moral hypocrisy” appearing moral while avoiding the costs of being soI.1When Attitudes Predict Behaviora.Our behavior and our expressed attitudes are differ is because that both are subject to other influences, many other influences.1.1.1.When social influences on what we say are minimalExpressed attitudes: Expressions are subject to outside influences, and sometimes we say things we think others want to hear.Implicit association test (IAT): A computer-driven assessment of implicit attitudes, The test uses reaction times to measure people’s automatic associations between attitude objects and evaluative words. Easier pairings (and faster responses) are taken to indicate stronger unconscious associations.1.1.2.When other influences on behavior are minimalPrinciple of aggregation: The effects of an attitude become more apparent when we look at a person’s aggregate or average behavior than when we consider isolated acts (ex. religious attitudes predict quite well the total quantity of religious behavior than whether they will go to worship services during the coming week because it may also influence by other factors such as weather).1.1.3.When attitudes specific to the behavior are examinedThe theory of Planned Behavior: Icek Ajzen, working with Martin Fishbein, has shown that one’s (a) attitudes, (b) perceived social norms, and (c) feelings of control together determine one’s intentions, which guide behavior. (Compared with their
general attitudes toward a healthy lifestyle, people’s specific attitudes regarding jogging predict their jogging behavior much better.)Inducing new intentions induces new behavior (ex. asking people about their intention to to engage in a behavior increases its likelihood).1.1.4.When attitudes are potentBringing attitudes to mind: Our attitudes become potent if we think about them.oMake them self-aware: acting in front of mirror (eye-level mirrors in stores make people more self-conscious of their attitudes about stealing)Forgetting strong attitudes through experience:oThe attitudes that best predict behavior are accessible (easily brought to mind)as well as stableoWhen attitudes are forged by experience, they are more accessible, more enduring, and more likely to guide actions.

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