JV1 KEY - BIBC 102 - Scheffler TA: Jacqueline Vu...

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BIBC 102 - Scheffler TA: Jacqueline Vu (jacquelinevu.j@gmail.com) OH: Wednesdays @12:10-1:10pm in YORK 3010B Lectures 1 -3 Proteins - The basic building block (monomer) of a protein is made of amino acids (a.a.) - These monomers are linked by peptide bonds to form sequences of a.a. o Primary Structure sequence of amino acids o Secondary Structure (local folding) Formed by H-bonds between the backbone groups Hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions Disulfide bridges btwn side chains Alpha Helix α helical structure w/ side chains of a.a. stability of the helical structure depends on the a.a. side chain interactions Beta Pleated sheets β Arranged parallel or anti-parallel o Tertiary Structure long range folding Are 2 structures along the a.a. sequence that fold together to form 3D structures Has hydrophobic & hydrophilic properties o Quaternary Structure multimeric structure Different numbers of subunits arrange to form more complex 3D structures Enzymes - Enzymes are catalysts that speed the reaction by lowering the activation energy - NOTE: all enzymes are proteins - Specificity each reaction is catalyzed by a specific enzyme o Selection of substrates are determined by chemical nature (charges) & stereochemistry o Two models for formation of enzyme-substrate complex: Induced Fit conformational at active site where the enzyme changes) Δ - Nomenclature of enzymes depend on the reactions they catalyze o Transferases group transfer o Hydrolases hydrolysis - Apoenzymes inactive proteins in the cell that can become activated enzymes by adding cofactors, coenzyme, metal ion, and prosthetic group. o Cofactors inorganic ions (Mg 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ca 2+ ,etc.) o Coenzymes mostly derived from vitamins like FAD from B 2 vitamins - Regulation of enzyme activity can occur: 1
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BIBC 102 - Scheffler TA: Jacqueline Vu (jacquelinevu.j@gmail.com) OH: Wednesdays @12:10-1:10pm in YORK 3010B o At the level of gene expression or protein turnover o By Covalent modification of side chains
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JV1 KEY - BIBC 102 - Scheffler TA: Jacqueline Vu...

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