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10102017 SESION 2 CEMS 2017 (1).pdf - Business in Latin...

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Business in Latin AmericaInstitutions, society and government.Session 2:Lessons of moder history in Latin AmericaPublic PolicyVenezuela and Argetina cases
19741989The region grew at an annual rate of 4.1 percent, compared to a historicalaverage of 2.8 percent per year.80% of Latin America countries were military dictatorships80s “lost decade” in LATAMproductof “Volckershock” inUnited States, manycountries suffered output contraction and collapse, along with currency, debt andbanking crisesThe political mirror image of the severe economic downturn and widespreadsocial discontent from 1982-1989 was the eventual toppling of every dictatorshipin the region (except Cuba).
Latin America: Third wave of democratizationYEAR1979198019821983198519891990COUNTRYECUADORPERUBOLIVIAARGENTINABRAZILPARAGUAYCHILE
1990 - 2003Ending 80s the dictatorhip in the region were replaced by democratically-electedgovernments, mostly to the center-right of the political spectrum.90s were characterized by fiscal discipline, low inflation, trade and financialliberalization, privatization and deregulation.70% of Latin American governments were center-right.Asian crises (1997), Russian default (1998) and huge flight of capital fromemerging markets that sent Latin American countries into another crises:recession, depression and wholesale currency, debt adn banking crisis.
2000 - 2014The governments did not repudiate the previous commitment to fiscaldiscipline, low inflation and open markets; they built massive social redistributionprograms2003 - 2011: boom commodity prices.“newparadigmcombined economic orthodoxy with social redistribution.A new crisis in 2012 product of Eurozone crisis a slowdown in China and thecollapse in commodity prices.Social discontent: corruption scandals.
COUNTRY200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162017BrazilLuiz Inácio Lula da SilvaDilma RusseffTemerArgentinaN.KirchnerCristina Fernandez de KirchnerM. MacriChileMichelle BacheletSebastian PiñeraMichelle BacheletColombiaAlvaro UribeJuan SantosEcuadorPalaciosRafael CorreaMorenoMexicoVcte.FoxFelipe CalderónEnrique Peña NietoPeruAlan GarcíaOllanta HumalaPPKVenezuelaHugo ChavezNicolás MaduroIzquierdaCentroDerechaLatin America now.
SocialDifferencesInequalitiesNSocial ConflictPolitics:Capacity toregulatetensionsGaranty ofcoheisonPolitics and its ability to manage social conflict
Social TrustSocial NetworksNCivicEngagementAccountablerepresentativedemocracyBetter policyoutputs?Political trust?Why might social networks and social trust relate to good governance?Putnam: Social Capital and democracy
888888565854908992200620112016OCDELATAM & CaribbeanNorth AmericaWorldwide Governance Indicators: Governmenteffectiveness.Comparing Latam with OCDE and North America

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