Book Notes 1

Book Notes 1 - Chapter 1 23/01/2008 01:47:00 Personality-...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 23/01/2008 01:47:00 Personality- The set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that are organized and relatively enduring and that influence his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the intrapsychic and social environments. Personality (Psychological) Traits How many fundamental traits are there How are the traits organized What are the origins of traits where do they come from and how do they develop What are the correlations of traits in terms of experience, behavior, and life outcomes Psychological Mechanisms The process of personality Most involve information-processing activity Most have three essential ingredients o Inputs more sensitive to certain situations o Decision rules more likely to think about specific options o Outputs - may guide their certain categories of action Within the individual - personality is something a person carries with them over time, are somewhat stable, and somewhat consistent over situations That are organized and relatively enduring o Our personalities are organized in a way that they contain decision rules that govern which needs are activated. o Traits are relatively enduring over time And that influence Influential forces of personality means that personality traits and mechanisms can have an effect on peoples lives (how we act). His or her interactions with situations including Perceptions how we interpret our environment Selection the manner in which we choose situations to enter how we choose our friends, our hobbies, etc. Chapter 2 23/01/2008 01:47:00 Personality Data Self-Report Data (S-Data) Advantages o People know more about themselves than anyone else o Can report feelings, emotions, desires, beliefs, and provate experiences that no one else can Weaknesses o Respondents must be willing to answer questions o They are not always honest especially when asked about unconventional experiences or undesirable traits Types of S-Data o Unstructured open ended questions o Structured true/false, multiple choice o Many use the Likert rating scale (1-7 of least characteristic to most characteristic) Observer-Report Data (O-Data) Advantages o May have access to information not attainable through other sources o Multiple observers can be used to access individual which provides a more valid and reliable assessment of personality can be achieved Professional personality assessors (observe the participants in a variety of contexts and independent description) vs. Individuals who know the target (better position to notice the natural behaviors and multiple social personalities, may be biased) Naturalistic observation (observers witness events that occur in natural course of lives) vs. Artificial observation (experimenter- generator situations can control conditions, sacrifices realism of everyday life)....
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course PSY 30300 taught by Professor A.kelly during the Spring '08 term at Notre Dame.

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Book Notes 1 - Chapter 1 23/01/2008 01:47:00 Personality-...

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