PSYCH1071_09-11-08r - Brain & Behavior: Neuron by...

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1 Neuron by Neuron Tuesday, September 11th 2007 Slide 2 Slicing up the living brain . . . 1) Anatomical (MRI) Images are acquired 2) Functional (fMRI) activation maps are overlayed on the anatomical Images. Slide 3 fMRI data: Subtraction Method Slide 4 Subtraction Method Face Area (yellow) and Scene Area (blue) Slide 5 Getting a better look: Inflating the brain Slide 6 fMRI: From a subject’s perspective • Safety questionnaire – No pace maker – No metal implants in the body – No pregnancy – No welding without protective eyewear – And more! • Small confined space • Need to remain motionless for ~60 minutes • Strange knocking and beeping noises • . . . but sometimes you can get a cool picture of your brain!
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2 Slide 7 fMRI: Pros and Cons • PROs – High spatial resolution in terms of both structure and function (< 1mm voxels/pixels) – 3-D-like view of the brain – Non-invasive • CONs – Poorer temporal resolution than EEG (seconds) – Can’t be used with persons with metal in their body. – Expensive Slide 8 What sort of questions can we ask with fMRI? • What part of the brain is activated by a given task? • Does training/learning change which parts of the brain are activated while performing a task? • Do different diseases impact the functional use of different brain regions? • What are the neural correlates of individual differences in performance? Slide 9 What’s the best tool? • Depends on your question . . . – Is spatial resolution important? – Is temporal resolution important? – Are there time restrictions for the study? – Are you working with humans or animals? Slide 10 How do they compare? from Ward, 2006 Slide 11 Summary • Cognitive neuroscientists use numerous tools to explore the relationship between the brain and behavior • Different tools have different strengths and weaknesses. • A given research question is often addressed using multiple tools in order to take advantage of the strengths of each tool. Slide 12 • Let’s pause a few minutes to review your notes.
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3 Slide 13 Outline • How is the nervous system organized? • What are the different parts of a neuron? • How do neurons communicate? • What are the different chemical messengers that neurons use? • How are neurons organized in the brain? Slide 14 Nervous System organization • Central Nervous System – Brain – Spinal cord • Peripheral Nervous System – Skeletal motor • Acts on skeletal muscles – Autonomic • Acts on glands and organs Sympathetic Parasympathetic Slide 15 Autonomic Nervous System • Sympathetic – Prepares you for action • Accelerates heart rate • Increases blood pressure • Relaxes lungs • Inhibits digestion • Activates adrenaline Slide 16 Autonomic Nervous System • Parasympathetic – “Housekeeping” functions
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course PSYCH 1071 taught by Professor Curby during the Fall '08 term at Temple.

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PSYCH1071_09-11-08r - Brain &amp; Behavior: Neuron by...

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