PSYCH1071_09_06_08

PSYCH1071_09_06_08 - Tools of Discovery in Psychology...

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Tools of Discovery in Psychology Thursday, September 6th 2007 But first we need to discuss the ethics of scientific research . . . Slide 3 Ethical considerations in research The Milgram Obedience Study Slide 4 Researchers must weigh possible harm that may be inflicted against the usefulness and other benefits that may be gained. Ethical considerations in research Safeguarding human subjects well-being Use of informed consent and debriefing Human Subject Committee Approval Institutional Review Board (IRB) American Psychological Association (APA) standards Milgram’s study would not be permissible today Slide 5 Ethical considerations in research Animal Research Ensure that research animals are treated humanely Ensure that any pain and discomfort are kept to a minimum Ensure that all alternative are examined before animals are subjected to potentially painful procedures Criteria for care and use of animals are established by professional organizations and animal care committees at research institutions Slide 6 Summary Descriptive studies: describe behavior without explaining relationships between variables. Correlation: provides a measure of the relationship between variables, but no information about cause and effect. Well-designed experiments: establish cause and effect and provide explanations. Psychological research is governed by a strict code of ethics that protects the well-being of human and animal participants.
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Slide 7 • Let’s pause a few minutes to review your notes. Slide 8 A Cognitive Neuroscientist’s Toolbox Electrical Electroencephalography (EEG/ERP) Single cell (neuron) recordings Electromagnetic Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) Magnetic Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) haemodynamic Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Slide 9 Key terms for evaluating tools Temporal resolution – The accuracy with which one can measure when and event occurs Spatial resolution – The accuracy with which one can measure where and event occurs Slide 10 Key terms for evaluating tools • Invasiveness – This refers to whether the equipment is located internally or externally. Slide 11 Electroencelphalography (EEG) Thinking and feeling = electrical activity in the brain EEG non-invasively measures electrical activity in the brain – Electrodes are placed on the scalp – Event-related potentials (ERPs) are recorded Slide 12 + 5 ! V 0 100 ms Car Face E.g. the N170. . . N170 Event-related potentials (ERPs)
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Slide 13 Collecting ERP data Slide 14 50 57 65 70 102 90 91 10 1 (Gauthier, Curran, Curby, & Collins, 2003) 20 car novices + 5 ! V 20 car experts + 5 ! V Learning changes the electrical activity in your brain!
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