Book note1 - Macronutrients: C, H, O, N, P, S, K, Mg, Ca,...

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Macronutrients: C, H, O, N, P, S, K, Mg, Ca, and Fe Fe3+ is transported into cells as a chelate (binding of a ligand (( a molecule that bonds to a central metal and transfers electrons, in this case Iron))) 1. Hydroxamates (most common sideophore) o Oxic conditions Mostly in insoluble minerals in the +3 oxidation state (ferric acid) To obtain oxygen cells produce siderophores (compounds that bind Fe3+ to chelates) that bind to iron and transport it into the cell. Iron is then transpoted as chelate into cells o Anoxic Iron in the Fe2+ state and soluble Notes: Hyrdroxymate. Iron is bound as Fe3+ and released inside the cell as Fe2+. The hydroxymate then exits the cell and repeats the cycle. 2 Enterobactins. a. The coliform bacterian (Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella), produce very powerful phenolic sideophores which are derivatives of caterchols. b. Siderophores called enterobactins c. Very important in pathogencicity because idon is often scarce in animal tissue. Oxygen
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3 Marine waters o Can be virtually undetectable. o Siderophores called AQUACHELINS o They have a peptide head and hydrophobic tail to interact with membrane. 4. Some organisms, such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease pathogen), can grow in the total absence of iron. In these organisms, Mn2+ substitutes for iron as the metal component of enzymes that normally contain Fe2+ Micronutrients - Typically but not always are metals that are critical to cell function but are requires only in tiny amounts (nanomolar concentrations) - A.K.A Trace Elements - Most commonly play role in catalaysis as components of some enzyme. -
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course HIST 101 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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Book note1 - Macronutrients: C, H, O, N, P, S, K, Mg, Ca,...

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