PSY 1113January 17, 2008•Psychology: the study of behavior and mental processes•Not a formal discipline until the 19thcentury•Evolved from philosophy and biology•Did not rely on empirical evidence•READ PAGES 15 – 18 on the Roots of PsychologyoKnow trephining, phrenology, Wundt, structuralism, intospection, James, functionalism, & Gestalt•1880-1920oWundt studied inner sensations through introspectionoPsychology: the science of mental lifeo1900 Freud publishes Interpretation of Dreams•1920s – 1960soWatson and the behaviorists thought you should only study what you can observeoPsychology: the science of observable behavior•1960s – Present DayoResurging interest in mental processesoWhy?oPsychology: the science of behavior and mental processes1.Behavior: anything an organism does; can observe and record2.Mental processes: internal subjective experiences we infer from behavior•Psychology in ContextoPost WWII1.Obedience, conformity, authoritarian personality, leadershipo1950s – 1960s1.Self-development and self-actualizationo1970s1.Gender differencesoPresent1. Terrorism•Major Theoretical Perspective: oTheory: an explanation using an integrated set on principles that
organizes and predicts observationsoPerspective: a specific point of view in judging things or events•Neuroscience/ Biological PerspectiveoViews behaviors from the perspective of the brain, the nervous system, and other biological functionsoEmphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughtsoThe perspective involves:1. Hormones2.Brain Chemistry3. Heredity4.Evolutionary influences•Psychodynamic PerspectiveoEmphasizes unconscious dynamicsoInner forces over which the individual has little control•Behavioral PerspectiveoA psychological approach suggests that observable behavior should be the focus of studyoEmphasizes how the environment and experience affect a person’s or animal’s actions•Cognitive Perspective oA psychological approach that focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the worldoEmphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavioroThis perspective includes:1.Intelligence testing2.Infant thinking3.Computer models of human thinkingJanuary 22, 2008•Humanistic PerspectiveoApproach that suggest that all individuals natural strive to grow, develop, and be in control of their lives and behavioroEmphasizes free willoPositive psychology, flow, ect. stem from this movement
•Psychology’s Key Issues•Nature vs. nurtureoDoes environment or heredity have stronger influence on our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors?•Consciousness vs. unconsciousnessoHow much of our behavior is produced by forces of which we are fully aware?