Organized History of Forensics - Organized History of...

Organized History of Forensics
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Unformatted text preview: Organized History of Forensics Ballistics 1835 Henry Goddard, one of Scotland Yard’s original Bow Street Runners, first used bullet comparison to catch a murderer. His comparison was based on a visible flaw in the bullet that was traced back to a mold. 1889 Alexandre Lacassagne, professor of forensic medicine at the University of Lyons, France, was the first to try to individualize bullets to a gun barrel. His comparisons at the time were based simply on the number of lands and grooves. 1898 Paul Jesrich, a forensic chemist working in Berlin, Germany, took photomicrographs of two bullets to compare, and subsequently individualize, the minutiae. 1913 Victor Balthazard, professor of forensic medicine at the Sorbonne, published the first article on individualizing bullet markings. (1920s) Calvin Goddard, with Charles Waite, Phillip O. Gravelle, and John H Fisher, perfected the comparison microscope for use in bullet comparison. 1926 The case of Sacco and Vanzetti, which took place in Bridgewater, Massachusetts, was responsible for popularizing the use of the comparison microscope for bullet comparison. Calvin Goddard’s conclusions were upheld when the evidence was reexamined in 1961. 1974 The detection of gunshot residue (GSR) using scanning electron microscopy with electron dispersive X-rays (SEMEDX) technology was developed by J. E. Wessel, P. F. Jones, Q. Y. Kwan, R. S. Nesbitt and E. J. Rattin at Aerospace Corporation. 1991 Walsh Automation Inc., in Montreal, launched development of an automated imaging system called the Integrated Ballistics Identification System , or IBIS , for comparison of the marks left on fired bullets, cartridge cases, and shell casings. The ability to compare fired bullets was subsequently added. This system was subsequently developed for the U.S. market in collaboration with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF). 1992 The FBI contracted with Mnemonic Systems to developed Drugfire , an automated imaging system to compare marks 1999 A Memorandum of Understanding is signed between the FBI and ATF, allowing the use of the National Integrated Ballistics Network ( NIBIN ), to facilitate exchange of firearms data between Drugfire and IBIS . Forensic Photography 1854 An English physician, Maddox, developed dry plate photography, eclipsing M. Daguerre’s wet plate on tin method. This made practical the photographing of inmates for prison records. 1864 Odelbrecht first advocated the use of photography for the identification of criminals and the documentation of evidence and crime scenes. 1898 Paul Jesrich, a forensic chemist working in Berlin, Germany, took photomicrographs of two bullets to compare, and subsequently individualize, the minutiae....
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