ENG
Methods___Online

# Methods___Online - Correlational study-A study in which we...

• Notes
• 32

This preview shows pages 1–13. Sign up to view the full content.

Correlations range from -1.00 to 1.00. The closer to -1.00 or 1.00, the stronger the relation between the two variables. Correlational study --A study in which we observe two variables simultaneously to see if they are related to one another. +1 -1

This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Trait aggressiveness and hockey penalties: Predicting hot tempers on the ice. Bushman & Wells (1998) Sample : 91 boys Independent Variable (IV): Score on the Physical Aggression subscale Dependant Variables (DV): Minutes of penalized for aggressive penalties : Roughing, tripping, slashing non-aggressive penalties : Delay of game, no mouth guard
Results r = .33 between trait aggressiveness and number of aggressive penalty minutes r = .04 between trait aggressiveness and number of non-aggressive penalty minutes

This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

The correlational method suffers from two important disadvantages : The directionality problem The third variable problem Correlation does not imply Causation!! The correlational method has advantages : Important variables Natural settings
The Directionality Problem Hypothesis : Marital dissatisfaction and depression are positively related. Which variable is the causal one? Marital Dissatisfaction Marital Dissatisfaction Depression Depression OR

This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Maybe the relation is not causal at all. Perhaps it is due to a third variable . Example: Ice cream sales and crime rate are positively correlated. The Third Variable Problem
Ice Cream Sales Temperature Crime Rate The Third Variable Problem

This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Urban Crowding Poverty Crime Rate The Third Variable Problem
Try to find the alternative explanations in the following . . .

This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

A study found that as the number of mules in a given state increases, the number of PhDs earned within the state decreases.
A recent study of soldiers stationed on army bases found that the number of tattoos a soldier had was correlated positively with becoming involved in a motorcycle accident.

This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Recently, it was reported that a correlation exists between people’s tendency to eat breakfast in the morning and how long they live, such that people who skip breakfast die younger.
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
• Spring '09
• various
• researcher, Causality

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

### What students are saying

• As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

• I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

• The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern