Methods___Online - Correlational study-A study in which we...

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Correlations range from -1.00 to 1.00. The closer to -1.00 or 1.00, the stronger the relation between the two variables. Correlational study --A study in which we observe two variables simultaneously to see if they are related to one another. +1 -1
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Trait aggressiveness and hockey penalties: Predicting hot tempers on the ice. Bushman & Wells (1998) Sample : 91 boys Independent Variable (IV): Score on the Physical Aggression subscale Dependant Variables (DV): Minutes of penalized for aggressive penalties : Roughing, tripping, slashing non-aggressive penalties : Delay of game, no mouth guard
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Results r = .33 between trait aggressiveness and number of aggressive penalty minutes r = .04 between trait aggressiveness and number of non-aggressive penalty minutes
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The correlational method suffers from two important disadvantages : The directionality problem The third variable problem Correlation does not imply Causation!! The correlational method has advantages : Important variables Natural settings
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The Directionality Problem Hypothesis : Marital dissatisfaction and depression are positively related. Which variable is the causal one? Marital Dissatisfaction Marital Dissatisfaction Depression Depression OR
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Maybe the relation is not causal at all. Perhaps it is due to a third variable . Example: Ice cream sales and crime rate are positively correlated. The Third Variable Problem
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Ice Cream Sales Temperature Crime Rate The Third Variable Problem
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Urban Crowding Poverty Crime Rate The Third Variable Problem
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Try to find the alternative explanations in the following . . .
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A study found that as the number of mules in a given state increases, the number of PhDs earned within the state decreases.
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A recent study of soldiers stationed on army bases found that the number of tattoos a soldier had was correlated positively with becoming involved in a motorcycle accident.
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Recently, it was reported that a correlation exists between people’s tendency to eat breakfast in the morning and how long they live, such that people who skip breakfast die younger.
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