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Media, Culture & Society1–4© The Author(s) 2017Reprints and permissions:sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.navDOI: 10.1177/0163443717737612journals.sagepub.com/home/mcsBook ReviewLee Artz (ed.),The Pink Tide: Media Access and Political Power in Latin America. London: Rowman& Littlefield, 2017.The Pink Tide, edited by Lee Artz, brings together nine articles by media scholars acrossthe world concerning the development of recent media reforms in Latin America. Inparticular, the book analyses the cases of Pink Tide countries, where left-leaning govern-ments have implemented a series of progressive reforms over the last years. As explainedin the first article authored by the editor, the term ‘Pink Tide’ was first coined byThe NewYork Timesreporter Larry Rohter, indicating a lighter tone than red (associated with com-munism) when referring to the victory of leftist presidents in Latin America, such asHugo Chávez in Venezuela (1998), Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff in Brazil (2002 and2011, respectively), Néstor and Cristina Kirchner in Argentina (2003 and 2011), EvoMorales in Bolivia (2005), Tabaré Vázquez and José ‘Pepe’ Mujica in Uruguay (2005and 2010) and Rafael Correa in Ecuador (2006).Although the essays present different perspectives and methods regarding the assess-ment of media policies in Pink Tide countries, there is an underlying question structuringthe group of articles, namely, whether there was an increase in participatory democracyand a correlative diversification of non-commercial media since the arise ofThe PinkTidein the early 2000s. Answers to this question vary from country to country, and therichness of this collection lies in the reconstruction of the political context and the studycases analysed in each article.The first and longest chapter, by Lee Artz, presents an overview of the The Pink Tidephenomenon in Latin America. According to Artz, rather than a coordinated top-downpolitical project, the arise of left-leaning governments was spurred by social movements’struggles against neo-liberalism. The explanatory principle behind Artz’s argument is thatneo-liberalism expelled tens of thousands of people to marginalization and poverty acrossLatin America between the 1970s and 1990s, masses who later organized social move-ments that played a decisive role in the political shift towards the left in the late 1990s and2000s. Given the preeminence of resistance movements in his analysis, Artz argues thatLatin America’s leftist governments can be divided between those that fostered participa-tory democracy and empowered the poor, the marginalized and the indigenous (Venezuela,Ecuador and Bolivia) and those that co-opted social movements, neutralizing, to some

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Term
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Mass Media, Luiz In cio Lula da Silva

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