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Exam 2 Cheat Sheet - -Person/Place/Time-Person Ch age sex...

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---------------------------------------------------------------Person/Place/Time--------------------------------------------------------- Person Ch.- age, sex, race, marital status, social class, behaviors, ed. level. Place – geographic residence, workplace, climate and environment factors, urban/rural diffs.; where people come together to interact. Time – variances over time, incubation period, latency period, length of symptoms, cyclic fluctuations, point epidemics. Epidemiology conclusions are directly applicable to groups studied, but only indirectly to the individual. Epidemiology as a Medical Science: Interactions of humans living in societies; studies based on comparing characteristics of groups of people, not a single individual. Appraising risk of ind requires much more detailed info, incl genetics. Most diseases rare (<10%). Advantages of Heterogeneity: Allows measure of char of pop that are potential explanations for disease variation. Disease cause is often social. --------------------------------------------------------------------------Chapter 11------------------------------------------------------------ Screening --the presumptive identification of unrecognized disease or defects by the application of tests, examinations, or other procedures that can be applied rapidly; Positive screening results are followed by diagnostic tests to confirm actual disease. Multiphasic Screening: the use of 2 or more screening tests together among large groups of people; Info obtained on risk factor status, history of illness, and health measures; Commonly used by employers and health maintenance organizations. Mass screening: screening on a large scale of total population groups regardless of risk status. Selective screening: screens subsets of the population at high risk for disease; More economical, and likely to yield more true cases. Ex=Screening high-risk persons for Tay-Sachs disease. Mass Health Exams: Pop or epidemiologic surveys; purpose is to gain knowledge regarding the distribution and determinants of diseases in selected populations; no benefit to the participant is implied. Epidemiologic surveillance --aims at the protection of community health through case detection and intervention. Case finding --the utilization of screening tests for detection of conditions unrelated to the patient’s chief complaint. **Social– hlth problem imp to ind and the comm, diagnostic follow up and intervention available to all who require, favorable cost benefit ratio, public acceptance must be high. Scientific – natural history adequately understood (permits ID of early stages and biologic markers of progression), prevalence/condition is high. Ethical – program can alter natural history of condition in significant %; suitable/acceptable tests for screening+diag of cond + acceptable/effective methods of prevent are available. *** Ch of Good Screening Test: [must know nat history of disease b4 develop screening programs] Simple (easy to learn/perform); Rapid (quick to admin, results quick); Inexpensive (good cost benefit ratio); Safe (no harm to partic); Acceptable (to target group). ***Reliability Types(3) (precision): gives consistent results repeatedly; 1)repeated meas reliability – degree of consistency w/ repeated meas of same person on more than 1 occasion.
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