exam 3 cheat sheet - Ecological studies: aggregate studies;...

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Ecological studies : “aggregate studies”; pop or group are unit of analysis; geographic boundaries. Correlate prevalence of spec exp factors in pops with occurance. Q o D—used to generate hypotheses; rarely used to test hyp; only measured on crude level; low quality; low degree of confidence that truly causal; ecologic fallacy. ADV—simple, quick, cheap, existing data; useful in eval effects of public health programs; monitor impact of intervention. DIS—finding don’t necessarily apply to ind people; diff to control for the confounding effects; level of exp and risk are averaged off. Cross-sec studies : prevalence studies, surveys; use the ind human as the unit of analysis; relate exposure factors to disease or some other health outcome. Prevalence of disease or health outcome is used instead of incidence of the outcome; relate exposure factors to health outcomes at the same point in time. Problems—difficult to determine which factor is cause/effect; possibility that disease has already influenced level of exposure factor. DQ—better than ecologic study; validity questionable; finding may be valid and of high quality when disease or outcome cannot influence exposure factor (exp factor not related to survivorship). Advant—cheap, simple, quick to conduct. Disad—disease/health outcome may influence level of exposure factor, distorting results; not clear which cam 1 st …exp factor or health outcome. Cohort studies : aka prospective, longitudinal, follow-up study. Ascertain exposure levels for a group; then relate them to subsequent devel of disease or other HO. Free of usual problems of meas exposure in CS or CC. Concurrent—“prospective”. Follows group forward
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course HED 343 taught by Professor Edmundson during the Fall '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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exam 3 cheat sheet - Ecological studies: aggregate studies;...

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