Ch 7t - Chapter 7: Genome Anatomies Molecular Genetics...

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Chapter 7: Genome Anatomies Molecular Genetics Lecture Outlines Chromosome structure: There is so much DNA in a human cell that it would measure 5 cm long if you stretched it all out. How is it packaged so that it fits into the cell? The first part of this chapter describes this. What is chromatin? What are histones? Fig. 7.1: They treated chromatin with nuclease (DNase) under nonlimiting conditions, and then they removed the histone proteins. What was the size of the resulting DNA in bp? When they used nuclease in limiting conditions (small amounts of nuclease or short time period) and deproteinated, the resulting DNA was in multiples of what size in bp? Therefore, what is the size of: (a) the DNA of the nucleosome and (b) the linker DNA? This is the “beads on a string” model (Fig. 2.5). Fig. 7.3: What is the “30 nm fiber”? This is the form of the interphase chromosomes. Fig. 7.4: What is special about metaphase chromosomes? What is a karyogram (Fig. 7.5)? What is constitutive heterochromatin? Where is it found in the chromosomes? What is the sequence pattern of centromere DNA? What are kinetochores and where do they bind (Figs. 7.8 & 7.9)? What is the sequence pattern of telomeres(Fig. 7.10)? Table 7.1: What is G-banding? What does Giemsa dye stain in the chromosome? Are dark staining bands rich or poor in genes? Why? Fig. 7.11: The telomeres and centromeres have very low gene densities, but there are other patches of differential gene density throughout the genome. The isochore model of genome organization posits that the genome is actually a patchwork of small pieces (300 kbp or larger). One patch might be rich in genes, while the next patch over is not. Tech Notes 7.1:
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Ch 7t - Chapter 7: Genome Anatomies Molecular Genetics...

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