Biology Chapters 8 9 10 Study Guide - Biology Chapters 8 9...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Biology Chapters 8, 9, and 10 Study Guide Chapter 8 1. Metabolism 2. Metabolic Pathways 3. Catabolic pathways break down complex molecules into simpler compounds, releasing energy 4. Cellular Respiration 3. Anabolic pathways build complex molecules from simpler ones and absorb energy 4. Synthesis of a protein from an amino acid 2. Forms of Energy 3. Energy is the capacity to cause change or do work 3. Chemical energy is the potential energy in a chemical reaction available for release 2. Energy Transformation 3. First Law of Thermodynamics 4. Energy can be neither created nor destroyed 4. Principle of Conservation of Energy 3. Second Law of Thermodynamics 4. Every energy transformation or transfer increases Entropy 4. Spontaneous reactions must increase Entropy of the universe 2. Biological order and disorder 3. The Entropy of a system, or organism, may decrease, as long as the Entropy of the surroundings, or the universe, increases 1. Free Energy Change 2. Gibbs Free Energy 3. Free energy is the portion of a system’s energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system 3. G=H-TS 3. G<0, then the process is spontaneous 2. Free Energy, Stability and Equilibrium 3. A high G represents low stability, and is more likely to release energy 3. Any change away from equilibrium will have a positive G and not be spontaneous 3. Negative G signifies a move towards equilibrium 2. Free Energy and Metabolism 3. Exergonic reactions release energy and are spontaneous 3. Endergonic reactions absorb energy and are not spontaneous 3. Equilibrium and Metabolism 4. The fact that the metabolism never reaches equilibrium is what keeps life going 1. ATP and Cellular Work 2. Three Kinds of Work 3. Chemical – pushing of endergonic reactions 3. Transport – pumping substances across a membrane 3. Mechanical Work – beating of cilia, contraction of muscles, or movement of chromosomes 3. Energy Coupling 4. Use of exergonic process to drive an endergonic one 4. ATP is source of energy
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
2. Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP 3. The hydrolysis of ATP has a negative G because the negative charges of the phosphates create repulsion 2. How ATP Performs Work 3. ATP hydrolyzes in water and heats the surrounding water 3. Substrate-Level Phosphorylation is one process that uses ATP to provide energy for the cell 3. ATP’s bond to a motor protein and then the hydrolyzation of the ATP releases energy 2. Regeneration of ATP 3. Energy coupling is used to renew a cell’s ATP supply 1. Enzymes 2. Activation Energy Barrier 3. Molecules in a reaction must gain enough energy to contort the molecules to a transition state called the activation energy 3. This energy requirement is often high enough to slow the reaction down 2. How Enzymes Lower Activation Energy 3. Heat cannot provide activation energy in biological systems because heat denatures proteins, kills cells, and would speed up all reactions, not just those that need it 2. Substrate Specificity 3. A substrate binds to an enzyme forming an enzyme-substrate complex 3. Once the enzyme has hold of the substrate, it creates an induced fit which is even
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern