final - Criminal Justice Final Notes Chapter 13:...

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Criminal Justice Final Notes Chapter 13: Corrections Development of Corrections Corrections refers to the great number of programs, services, facilities, and organizations responsible for the management of people accused or convicted of criminal offenses *Prisons *Jails *Probation *Halfway houses *Education and work release programs Prior to 1800, Americans copied Europeans in using physical punishment as the main criminal sanction Flogging, branding, and maiming served as the primary methods of controlling deviance and maintaining public safety Jails existed throughout the country but served only to hold people awaiting trial or to punish people unable to pay their debts As in England, the American colonies maintained houses of correction, where offenders were sentenced to terms of “hard labor” as a means of turning them from crime The Enlightenment *A period of time in the late 18 th century when philosophers and reformers challenged tradition with new ideas about the individual limitations on government and rationalism *This served as the intellectual force sustaining reforms about the criminal justice system and methods of punishment *Marked a movement for the change from corporal punishment to types that were more fitted to the offender The Penitentiary *Reform was influenced by John Howard’s book The State of Prisons in England and Wales (1777) *Howard believed the new institution for prisoners should be a place of industry and offered criminals opportunities for penitence and repentance *Penitentiary-an institution intended to punish criminals by isolating them from society and from one another so thy can reflect on their past misdeeds, repent, and reform Reform in the United States *Based on the work of English reformers
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*Emphasis shifted from the assumption that deviance was part of human nature to a belief that crime resulted from environmental forces (new goal was to not inflict pain on the offender’s body but to change the person and set them on the right path) *Penitentiaries were created in Pennsylvania and New York *By the mid 1800s the US penitentiary system had become world famous Pennsylvania Prison System Characteristics *A system of separate confinement *No communications of any kind were allowed *Solitary labor, Bible reading, and reflection were the keys to the moral rehab Implemented isolation, penance, contemplation, labor, and silence *All activities were conducted in the cells Reasons for separate confinement 1. prisoners would not be treated vengefully but should be convinced that through hard and selective forms of suffering they could change their lives 2. solitary confinement would prevent further corruption inside prison 3. in isolation, offenders would reflect on their transgression and repent 4. solitary confinement would ne punishment because humans are by nature social animals 5. solitary confinement would be economical because prisoners would not need long periods of time to repent, and so fewer keepers would
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final - Criminal Justice Final Notes Chapter 13:...

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