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final 2 - Chapter 13 Summary From colonial days to the...

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Chapter 13 Summary From colonial days to the present, the methods of criminal sanctions that are considered appropriate have varied The development of the penitentiary brought a shift away from corporal punishment The PA and NY systems were competing approaches to creating penitentiaries The Declaration of Principles of 1870 contained the key elements for the reformatory and rehabilitation models of corrections Thee principles guided female prison reform during the 19 th century: (1) separation from male prisoners, (2) care specialized to women’s needs, and (3) management by female staff Although based on the social sciences, the rehab model failed to reduce recidivism The community model of corrections tried to provide psychological treatment and increase opportunities for offenders to be successful citizens The crime control model emphasized incarceration, long and mandatory sentencing, and strict supervision The administration of corrections in the US is fragmented in that various levels of govt are involved The correctional responsibilities of the federal govt are divided between the Federal Bureau of Prisons (of the US Dept of Justice) and the Administrative Office of the US Courts In all states the administration of prison falls under the executive branch of state government Private prisons may or may not become accepted as a way to address overcrowding Jails, which are administered by local govt, hold sentenced offenders and people awaiting trial Jail administrators face several problems: (1) the perceived role of the jail in the local criminal justice system, (2) the inmate population, and (3) fiscal problems Until the 1960s the courts held a hands-off policy with respect to corrections The rights of offenders are found in the 1 st , 4 th , 8 th , and 14 th amendments The prisoners’ rights movement, through lawsuits in the federal courts, has brought many changes to the administration and conditions of US prisons Decisions of the US Supreme Court have affected community corrections through rules of governing probation and parole revocation Prison populations have more than doubled during the past decade; there has also been a great increase in facilities and staff to administer them Checkpoint Questions 1. What was the Enlightenment and how did it influence corrections? A period in the late 18 th century when philosophers rethought the nature of society and the place of the individual in the world. Reformers began to raise questions about the nature of criminal behavior and the best methods of punishment 2. What were the main goals of the penitentiary? (1) a secure and sanitary building, (2) systematic inspection, (3) abolition of fees, and (4) a reformatory regime
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3. How did the PA and the NY systems differ?
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