WPR 2 (Cazier) - Answers

WPR 2 (Cazier) - Answers - Critical Reasoning Written...

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Critical Reasoning Written Partial Review – Version 2 Section I – Recognizing Arguments (12 points) 1. What determines whether a claim is true or false? The truth of a claim is determined by its consistency with the actual world. 2. What is the difference between premise and conclusion? A premise is a claim which lends support to another claim. A conclusion is a claim which is supported by other claims. 3. How does a complex argument differ from a simple argument? A complex argument contains at least one intermediate conclusion (and consequently, at least two inferences). A simple argument contains only one inference and only one conclusion. 4. Can a deductively invalid argument be non-deductively successful? Explain why or why not. Deductive arguments seek to establish their conclusions with certainty. An invalid argument is one that fails to do so. Non-deductive arguments seek to establish their conclusions with probability. An argument that fails to be absolutely conclusive may still be probable. Thus deductively invalid arguments can still be non-deductively successful. 5. Explain validity and soundness Validity is a test of the successful structure of an argument. It indicates that if the premises are true, the conclusion must also be true. But validity itself does not guarantee that the premises actually are true. Soundness is a measure of both validity and truth in an argument. A sound argument must have true premises. And since it is also valid, it will have a true conclusion. 6. What is the difference between argument and explanation? In argument and explanation, the order of thought are different. In an argument, the premises are accepted, but the conclusion is in question. In an explanation, the outcome (analogous to a conclusion) is accepted, but the story behind it (analogous to the premises) are in question. Section II – Analyzing Arguments (10 points) 7. Write the following simple argument in standard form . In doing so, be certain to include any unstated premise(s) or conclusion(s). Omit any statements which are not essential to the argument. “We may not like Mr. Whewell’s wearing the American flag as a skirt, but it is a form of expression. Thus, it is constitutionally protected.” Mr. Whewell’s wearing of the American flag as a skirt is a form of expression. Forms of expression are constitutionally protected. (Implied) Mr. Whewell’s wearing of the American flag as a skirt is constitutionally protected. 1 Grading: 1 points for first premise (and omitting excess) 2 points for capturing implied premise 1 point for inference bar 1 point for conclusion
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8. Analyze the following argument. Circle the inference indicators. Bracket and number the individual claims. Diagram the argument to show which claims are intended to support which claims. “The fate of the hikers will forever be a mystery.
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WPR 2 (Cazier) - Answers - Critical Reasoning Written...

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