# WPR 1 (Cazier) - Answers - Critical Reasoning Written...

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Section I – Recognizing Arguments (12 points) 1. What is the difference between physical possibility and logical possibility? Physical possibility pertains to what things are possible given the constraints of our physical world. For example, it is not physically possible that when I release a stone, it will fly away. It will necessarily fall. Logical possibility pertains to what is possible given the constraints of logic alone. It is not logically impossible that I could release a stone and have it float away, rather than fall. For example, a stone released in space (or in The Matrix ) could float away. But it is not logically possible that 2 + 3 could ever equal anything other than 5. It is not logically possible that I could be both yellow and not yellow at the same time. 2. What is an argument? An argument is a set of claims, some of which are meant to support (an)other(s). 3. What role do inference indicators play in an argument? Inference indicators reveal the relationship between claims in an argument. They tell which claims are intended to support which others. They indicate when a premise or conclusion is being presented. 4. What is the difference between deductive and non-deductive arguments? Deductive arguments aim for absolute certainty. Non-deductive arguments aim for probability. 5. What does soundness require that validity does not require? Soundness requires both validity and truth. A valid argument can have a false conclusion, but a sound argument requires both validity and that the premises be true. Those two elements also guarantee that the conclusion will be true. 6. What is the difference between argument and explanation? The difference lies in the order of thought. In an argument, the premises are accepted, but the conclusion is in question. In an explanation, the outcome (analogous to a conclusion) is accepted, but the story behind it (analogous to the premises) are in question. Section II – Analyzing Arguments (10 points) 7. Write the following simple argument in standard form. In doing so, be certain to include any unstated premise(s) or conclusion(s). Omit any statements which are not essential to the argument. “Many philosophers have tried to distinguish between what they called just and unjust wars. But all war causes the suffering of innocent people. So there can be no such thing as a just war.” 1. All war causes the suffering of innocent people. 2. An event which causes the suffering of innocent people is not just. (IMPLIED PREMISE) 3. No war can be just 1, 2 4. There is no such thing as a just war. 3 1 Given that there is an implied premise (and possibly conclusion) in this argument, you may present the standard form slightly different than this. Your second premise might be worded differently. And you likely did not include (and didn’t really need to) the claim I

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## This test prep was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course PY 201 taught by Professor Majcazier during the Spring '08 term at West Point.

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WPR 1 (Cazier) - Answers - Critical Reasoning Written...

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