St._John's_University_Advanced_Human_Anatomy_and_Physiology_I_BIO_3100_Lecture_Examination_#2_Study_

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1BIO 3100: Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology ILecture Examination #2 Study Guide/ReviewDr. Emanuel J. PepitoneChapter 9: Jointsjoint (articulation or arthrosis)point of contact between two or morebones, between cartilage and bones, orbetween teeth and bonesstructural classificationbased upon the presence or absence of asynovial joint cavity and type ofconnecting tissue (fibrous, cartilaginous,synovial)functional classificationbased on the degree of movementpermitted (synarthroses, amphiarthroses,diarthroses)fibrous jointslack a synovial cavity, articulating bonesare held together by fibrous connectivetissue, synarthrosessynarthrosesallow little or no movementtypes of fibrous jointssuture, syndesmosis, gomphosissuturefibrous joint composed of a thin layer ofdense fibrous CT called the suturalligament that unites skull bones (slightmovement, only in skull)synostosissuture joint that has totally ossified. ex:suture between frontal and parietal(coronal suture) in some people, only10% is ossifiedhow a synostosis is functionallyclassified?as a synarthrosis - allows little or nomovement
2syndesmosisfibrous joint in which two bones areseparated by thick dense fibrous CTcalled an interosseous membrane orligament. ex: joint between distal tibia andfibula (anterior tibiofibular ligament)ligamentbone to bonegomphosis (dentoalveolar)fibrous joint in which a cone shaped pegfits into a socket (alveolar socket) ex:periodontal ligamentcartilaginous jointslacks a synovial cavity, articulating bonesconnected by either fibrocartilage orhyaline cartilage, synarthrosestypes of cartilaginous jointssynchondrosis, symphysissynchondrosiscartilaginous joint in which the connectingmaterial is hyaline cartilage. ex.epiphyseal plate of a bonesymphysiscartilaginous joint in which the connectingmaterial is a white broad disc offibrocartilage. ex: pubic symphysisamphiarthrosesslightly moveablesynovial jointshave a synovial joint cavity betweenarticulating bonesdiarthrosesfreely moveable joint (several types ofmovement)articular cartilage (fibrocartilage/hyaline)covers the end of bones at synovial joints;function = decrease friction produced bymoving bones and absorb shockarticular capsuleencloses the synovial cavity and unitesthe articulating bones; 2 layers: outerfibrous capsule and inner synovialmembraneouter fibrous capsuledense, irregular CT attached toperiosteum; some of these are arrangedin parallel bundles called ligaments
3inner synovial membraneelastic areolar CTsynovial fluidsecreted by the synovial membrane,lubricates joint, decreases friction, supplynutrients and remove wastes given off bychondrocytes and contains phagocytes toremove debris that accumulates fromwear and tear on jointswhy warm up?stimulates production and secretion ofsynovial fluidaccessory ligaments and articular discsalter the shape of joint surfaces ofarticulating bones to allow: a tighter fit,increased joint stability, and distributessynovial fluid to areas of greatest stress injointsarticular discsaka menisci, perform 3 functions:maintain joint stability, distribute synovialfluid, allow a tighter fitsprainforcible wrenching or twisting of a jointthat stretches or tears its ligaments butdoes not dislocate the bonestrainstretched or partially torn musclebursaesynovial fluid filled saclike structures that

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Term
Spring
Professor
Vladimir Poltrasky
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