St._John's_University_Advanced_Human_Anatomy_and_Physiology_I_BIO_3100_Lecture_Final_Examination_Stu

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1BIO 3100: Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology ILecture Final Examination Study Guide/ReviewDr. Emanuel J. PepitoneChapter 14: The Brain and Cranial Nervesbrainlargest/most complex; center forregistering sensations, correlating themwith one another and with stored info,making decisions, and taking action;center for intellect, emotions, behavior,and memoryfull growth and weight?age 20, 3 lbs.requires ____% of the total oxygencontent20permanent damage with more than __min without oxygen5limited storage capacity for _____ andmust be continually supplied; deficiencymay cause:glucose; confusion, dizziness,convulsions, unconsciousnessmajor parts of brainbrain stem, diencephalon, cerebrum,cerebellumbrain is protected bycranial bones and meningesthree extensions of the meningeal layer ofthe dura mater separate parts of the brainfalx cerebri, falx cerebelli, tentoriumcerebellifalx cerebri:separate right from left cerebralhemispherefalx cerebellifound between right and left halves ofcerebellumtentorium cerebelli -separate cerebellum from occipital lobeCSFclear, colorless fluid with a total volume inthe adults of 100-200 mlformation of CSFthere are four CSF filled cavities withinthe brain called ventricles (also travelsthrough central canal of spinal cord)
2lateral ventricles (1 and 2)principle site of CSF productionthird ventricledrains the lateral ventriclesfourth ventricledrains the third ventriclesCSF is formed byfiltration of blood water through a networkof capillaries produced at the rate ofabout 1 liter per day and ependymal cellscalled the choroid plexuspathway of CSF flowlateral ventricles -- foramen of Monro--third ventricle -- 4th ventricle -- aqueductof Sylvius (cerebral aqueduct) -- centralcanal of spinal cordwhat is the CSF reabsorbed bythe arachnoid villi of the superior sagittalblood sinushydrocephalusis CSF can’t circulate or drain properlydue to an obstruction in the ventricles orsubarachnoid space, a buildup will occurcausing increased pressure on the brain -headache, nauseous, comamedulla oblongatacontinuous with upper part of the spinalcord; white matter - portions of myelinatedmotor (descending) and sensory(ascending) tracts - these tracts connectto the higher brain centers) ; pyramids ;largest motor tracts (descending),triangular in shape; decussation - neuronsin left cerebral cortex control skeletalmuscles on the right side of the bodygray matter: nuclei for origin for CN VIIIthrough XII and autonomic reflex centers -neurons receive sensory messages fromfibers in ascending tracts. The axons ofthese cell bodies will cross over toopposite side through pyramids and goonto higher brain centersnucleuscollection or cluster of neuronal cellbodies in the gray matter
3autonomic reflex centersrespiratory (breathing rhythm) cardiaccontrol (force/rate of heart beat)vasomotor (vessel vasoconstriction)coughing, vomiting, sneezing, swallowing,hiccupping :: receive visceral, afferentfibers from spinal/cranial nerves andsynapse in reflex centers - efferent fibersleave by way of spinal/cranial nervesponsseparates medulla from midbrain containsgray and white matter. 2 types of tracts -longitudinal (posterior ) and transverse(anterior)pons white matterinterconnects different levels of the brainby way of tracts and relays nerveimpulses related to voluntary skeletalmovements from the cerebral cortex tothe cerebellum

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Term
Spring
Professor
Vladimir Poltrasky
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