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Chem Exam 3 Review - Chapter 9 Acids Bases-pH=-log[H3O-pH...

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Chapter 9: Acids & Bases -pH= -log [H 3 O + ] -pH + pOH= 14 -pH < 7 = acid, pH > = base, pH = 7 is neutral -A buffered solution is one that resists a change in pH when a hydronium or hydroxide ion is added. Such a solution contains a buffer system consisting of a conjugate acid-base pair. -Buffer systems are important in our human bodies – for example, carbon dioxide maintains the acid-base balance of the blood. - Normality is a multiple of molarity and it is a concentration unit defined as equivalents per liter . (Equivalent mass and equivalents are related to formula mass.) - Equivalent mass expresses the mass in grams of a base required to neutralize an acid (in grams.) -The Bronsted-Lowry Theory describes acids as proton donors and bases as proton acceptors.
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Chapter 10: -The photoelectron effect is when light of a particular frequency shines on a metal surface and the electrons are caused to flow through the metal. - Photons are particles of light whose energy depends on the frequency of the light. ( As frequency increases, energy increases!) -Photons can act as particles OR as waves , depending on how it is measured. - Radioactivity results from the instability of an atomic nucleus. Protons within the nucleus repel each other strongly due to their identical positive charges. -Radioactive emissions involve changes in mass number or atomic number, or both. -To describe the number of “nucleons” (protons and neutrons) in the nucleus, you can either: -write the mass number as a superscript and the atomic number as a subscript to
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