Nutrition (Final) -1 - NTR 311 Review Exam 1 Chapter 1 1....

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NTR 311 Review Exam 1 Chapter 1 1. Name the 6 classes of nutrients. Minerals —simple atoms/molecules made up of things like sodium, chloride, calcium Water —transport of nutrients, provides medium for chemical reactions, keeps body temperature constant Carbohydrates —provides us with energy we need to conduct all chemical processes in the body and to do activities Proteins —provide substance needed to make muscles, etc. Energy Fat —energy, store for body fat Vitamins —minute amounts in body, in most foods 2. Organic molecules contain carbon and are large complex molecules. Name examples: carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins 3. Inorganic molecules contain no carbon and are simple molecules. Name examples: minerals, water 4. All nutrients are essential and must be obtained through the diet . 5. Which nutrients yield energy when broken down in the body? Fats, carbohydrates, proteins 6. Define kilocalories: 1000 calories; unit of energy (measured as heat) required to raise 1 kg of water 1 degree Celsius 7. Know the kilocalorie yields for 1 gram of: - Fat – 9 kcal/gram - Carbohydrate – 4 kcal/gram - Protein – 4 kcal/gram - Alcohol – 7 kcal/gram 8. Know how to perform percentage calculations: e.g. A cup of 2% milk contains 120 calories, 12 g CHO, 8 g protein, 5 g fat. What is the % kcal from fat in 2% milk? 1. 5 grams of fat = 9 kcal (kcal yielded for 1g of fat) * 5 grams= 45 kcalories 2. 45 kcalories / 120 kcalories (total of kcalories) = .375 kcalories 3. .375 kcal * 100 (for percent) = 37.5% 9. Know how to convert kilocalories to grams and visa versa e.g. A meal consists of 40 grams of carbohydrates, 20 grams of protein and 15 grams of fat, How many kilocalories are in the meal? – 40g of carbohydrates = 40g * 4 kcal= 160 kcals – 20g of protein = 20g * 4kcal= 80 kcals – 15g of fat = 15g * 9 kcal = 108 kcals
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NTR 311 Review Exam 1 –160 kcals of carbohydrates = 160 kcals / 4 kcal p gram = 40 grams of Carbs – 80 kcals of protein = 80 kcals / 4 kcals p gram = 20 grams of Protein – 108 kcals of fat = 108 kcals/ 9 kcals p gram = 15 grams of Fat 10. Define the 4 Dietary Reference Intakes: - RDA's - Once a nutrient requirement is established, a recommendation must be made. They are set high enough so that 98% of the population is getting enough nutrients - Adequate intake - Like the RDA, but used when there is less scientific research and more speculation (like for infants) - Estimated average requirement - set by grouping recommendations for people based on age and gender and looking at enough people to reveal that individual requirements fall into a symmetrical distribution with most near the midpoint and only a few at the extremes (TB 1-5). The EAR for each nutrient is the average amount that appears sufficient for half of the population - Tolerable upper limit - This is the point where intake of nutrients beyond is likely to become toxic. Paying attention to upper levels is particularly useful in guarding against the overconsumption of nutrients
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Nutrition (Final) -1 - NTR 311 Review Exam 1 Chapter 1 1....

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